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Technical Paper

The Emerging Market for Biodiesel and the Role of Fuel Additives

With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselisation of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO2 emissions. To reverse this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO2 neutral. A common route towards this goal is to substitute diesel fuel with esterified seed oils, collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. However a fundamental change to the fuel chemistry produces new challenges in ensuring compatibility between fuel and engine performance/durability. This paper discusses the global situation and shows how fuel additives can overcome the challenges presented by the use of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 1 Regulated Emissions and Regeneration Performance

Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However such initiatives are not retrospective and due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a time lag before the full benefit of the new measures are fully realised. To overcome this drawback, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. To add to the data base for such assessments Octel is running a demonstration programme using London Black Cabs. Four cars have been fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 2 Non-Regulated Emissions Measurements

Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. In areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has also been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. However with the increasing use of DPF technology concerns are now being raised over some currently unregulated emissions such as ultra fine particulate and NO2, although total particulate mass and oxides of nitrogen are regulated. To add to the data base for such issues a programme of work was run using London Black Cabs. Four cars were fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting Urban Buses to Reduce PM and NO2

In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting TRU-Diesel Engines with DPF-Systems Using FBC and Intake Throttling for Active Regeneration

Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) powered by small diesel engines emit high PM and cause locally high PM levels. The concomitant health risks spurred efforts to devise a cost-effective curtailment of these emissions. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) of ceramic honeycomb construction very efficiently trap PM emissions, even ultrafines in the lung penetrating size range of below 300 nm. A fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can facilitate trap regeneration, by lowering the exhaust temperature requirements, but cannot alone guarantee reliable regeneration under all operating conditions of the TRU. A Swiss development team together with industrial partners therefore developed a fully automatic active regeneration system for the California Air Resources Board.
Technical Paper

Service Application of a Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for DPF Retrofit

A dosing system has been developed to facilitate the addition of a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to a vehicle's fuel supply. The on-board dosing system was primarily designed to reduce cost and complexity. One embodiment of the design provided an additional benefit, namely the automatic adjustment of treat rate according to duty cycle. For high duty operating cycles where average exhaust gas temperatures are high, a low treat rate of FBC is supplied. Conversely at low duty where the exhaust temperature is lower, a higher treat of FBC is delivered. Data from field applications are presented to demonstrate this feature.
Technical Paper

Combining Fuel Borne Catalyst, Catalytic Wash Coat and Diesel Particulate Filter

In view of increasing concern over diesel particulates and tightening legislation to control their emission, much work has been done to develop diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and systems to allow them to work reliably. Although a filter will effectively trap solid particles, any material in the vapour phase, such as unburned hydrocarbons, may pass through the filter and subsequently condense. The use of a catalytic wash coat, either on the DPF itself or on a separate substrate, has been proposed to oxidise these hydrocarbons and thus reduce the total material emitted. The use of fuel borne catalysts to aid the regeneration of trapped material within the DPF is also well documented. Such catalyst will also catalyse the oxidation of any hydrocarbons bound up within the particulate. The oxidation of such hydrocarbon occurs at a lower temperature than that of carbon itself, thus allowing lower temperature regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

The Long Distance Road Trial of a Combined Diesel Particulate Filter and Fuel Additive

Trapping diesel particulates is effective in reducing both the number and the mass of fine particulate emissions from diesel engines, but unless the accumulated soot can be burned out or regenerated periodically, the vehicle to which the trap is fitted will cease to function after a relatively short time. A programme of work with soot traps using a low treat rate iron-strontium organo-metallic fuel additive to assist and secure regeneration has been carried out. As part of this programme, an advanced specification diesel engine passenger car equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), was operated on roads in the UK for approximately 18 months, during which time the vehicle covered over 50,000 km After completion of 50,000 km on roads, the vehicle was operated on a chassis dynamometer to increase the distance covered with a DPF more rapidly to a final total of 80,000 km.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Parameters Ensuring Reliable Regeneration of a Sintered Metal Particulate Filter using a Fuel Borne Catalyst

The operating cycle of many vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters is such that soot accumulates within the filter and must periodically be oxidised. Work was carried out on a passenger car engine to elucidate how fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to soot ratio, oxygen mass flow rate, temperature and soot loading influence the oxidation rate of soot accumulated in a sintered metal filter (SMF). Results show that soot loading had a major influence; increased soot loading increased the oxidation rate. The other parameter had a smaller influence with increasing oxygen flow rate and FBC/soot ratio each increasing the oxidation rate.
Technical Paper

Practical Experience of Fitting DPFs to Buses in Chile

Continuing research into the effect of vehicle emissions is driving legislation, which is increasingly being enacted to encourage the retrofitting of emissions control devices. Of particular concern are emissions of diesel particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. More recently the adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide in particular, have been highlighted. A programme of work is underway in Santiago to demonstrate the suitability of retrofitting diesel particulate filters (DPF) to urban buses. This paper presents data, including regulated and unregulated emissions, from a bus fitted with a DPF that relies on a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Metal Emissions, NO2 and HC Reduction from a Base Metal Catalysed DPF/FBC System

Due to concerns over NO2 emissions from platinum catalysts a base metal catalysed diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed and used in combination with fuel borne catalysts (FBC). Results are presented showing reductions in HC, NOX, NO2, and PAH emissions along with an assessment of the emissions of metals used in the FBC and the catalysed DPF. This data is used to show the likely reduction in overall iron and other metal emissions as a result of using the catalysed DPF/FBC system. A similar system has also been assessed for durability for over 2000 hours when fitted to a bus in regular service in Switzerland.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems with Fuel Additives for Enhanced Regeneration Characteristics

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) are well known as a developing form of exhaust after-treatment for compression ignition engines. Subjected to extensive testing in experimental form, DPFs have yet to achieve widespread application in regular use on production road vehicles, despite their potential for delivering reductions of typically 90% in diesel exhaust particulate emissions. Tests have shown that different additives are effective in enhancing performance in a range of DPF types, and on engines of different configurations. Efforts have been made to correlate performance with engine operating regime, by linking soot particulate condition to the frequency of regeneration. A performance index has been developed to try to predict regeneration characteristics with additive treated fuel. The work has shown that there are engine operating conditions producing soot which is less likely to burn off in the DPF.
Technical Paper

A Method for Assessing the Low Temperature Regeneration Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel-borne Catalysts

Fuel-borne catalysts are now an accepted means of aiding the self-regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). In the past it has been possible to assess the effect of these fuel additives by investigating the temperature at which the filter reaches a pressure drop equilibrium. Under these temperature conditions, the particulate matter is oxidised at the same rate as it is being deposited and there is thus no change in pressure drop across the filter. This technique adequately demonstrates the oxidation temperature of the carbon in the presence of the catalyst. However, it is now well known that such fuel additives also influence the low temperature oxidation of particulate bound hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is not detected by the filter equilibrium technique.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

Fouling of Two Stage Injectors - An Investigation into Some Causes and Effects

In the quest for improved fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions, motor manufacturers are increasingly turning to the High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger car use. To achieve acceptable levels of noise and emissions at low loads two stage injection is being utilised. Such injection systems are prone to nozzle coking due to the small fuel metering holes, low opening pressures and low fuel flow rates under part load operation. This coking leads to a rapid deterioration of emissions performance. This paper describes work done to investigate conditions leading to this phenomena and the possible mechanisms involved.
Technical Paper

Improved Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Performance Using Fuel Soluble Additives

Interest has been growing in many countries in the potential use of diesel particulate filters (DPF). This type of after treatment technology has been shown to make very significant reductions in both the mass of particulate emitted in diesel exhaust gas, and also in the number of fine particulates, which have been linked in recent years with concerns for human health. Work carried out during a development programme investigating the capability of fuel soluble metallic additives to assist DPF regeneration, indicated superior performance from a novel combination of metals in fuel soluble form. Earlier work showed that a fuel soluble combination of organo-metallic additives based on sodium and strontium gave very effective regeneration characteristics, and was capable of burning out carbon at temperatures from about 160°C.
Journal Article

Temperature Programmed Oxidation as a Technique for Understanding Diesel Fuel System Deposits

The fuel injection equipment (FIE) has always been paramount to the performance of the Diesel engine. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations have dictated that the FIE becomes more precise and sophisticated. The latest generation FIE is therefore less tolerant to deposit formation than its less finely engineered predecessors. However, the latest emissions regulations make it increasingly difficult for engine manufacturers to comply without the use of exhaust aftertreatment. This aftertreatment often relies on catalytic processes that can be impaired by non-CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) components within the fuel. Fuel producers have therefore also been obliged to make major changes to try and ensure that with the latest technology engines and aftertreatment systems the fuel is still fit for purpose. However, there has recently been a significant increase in the incidence of reported problems due to deposit build-up within vehicle fuel systems.
Journal Article

Possible Mechanism for Poor Diesel Fuel Lubricity in the Field

Traditionally, diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) has frequently relied on the diesel fuel to lubricate the moving parts. When ultra low sulphur diesel fuel was first introduced into some European markets in the early 1980's it rapidly became apparent that the process of removing the sulphur also removed other components that had bestowed the lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Diesel fuel pump failures became prevalent. The fuel additive industry responded quickly and diesel fuel lubricity additives were introduced to the market. The fuel, additive and FIE industries expended much time and effort to develop test methods and standards to try and ensure this problem was not repeated. Despite this, there have recently been reports of fuel reaching the end user with lubricating performance below the accepted standards.