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Technical Paper

Evaluation of CarFit® Criteria Compliance and Knowledge of Seat Adjustment

2018-04-03
2018-01-1314
Improper fit in a vehicle will affect a driver’s ability to reach the steering wheel and pedals, view the roadway and instrument gauges, and allow vehicle safety features to protect the driver during a crash. CarFit® is a community outreach program to educate older drivers on proper “fit” within their personal vehicle. A subset of measurements from CarFit® were used to quantify the “fit” of 97 older drivers over 60 and 20 younger drivers, ages 30-39, in their personal vehicles. Binary, logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of drivers meeting the CarFit® measurement criteria prior to and after CarFit® education. The results showed older drivers were five times more likely than younger drivers to meet the CarFit® criteria for line of sight above the steering wheel, suggesting that younger drivers would also benefit from CarFit® education.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Development and Implementation of a Reconfigurable Interior Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-0321
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to explain the interior concept that offers a flexible interior utility/activity space for Generation Z (Gen Z) users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Electric Supercharging and Turbo-Generation for a Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1228
Exhaust gas turbo-charging helps exploit the improved fuel efficiency of downsized engines by increasing the possible power density from these engines. However, turbo-charged engines exhibit poor transient performance, especially when accelerating from low speeds. In addition, during low-load operating regimes, when the exhaust gas is diverted past the turbine with a waste-gate or pushed through restricted vanes in a variable geometry turbine, there are lost opportunities for recovering energy from the enthalpy of the exhaust gas. Similar limitations can also be identified with mechanical supercharging systems. This paper proposes an electrical supercharging and turbo-generation system that overcomes some of these limitations. The system decouples the activation of the air compression and exhaust-energy recovery functions using a dedicated electrical energy storage buffer. Its main attributes fast speed of response to load changes and flexibility of control.
Journal Article

Conceptual Development of a Multi-Material Composite Structure for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1334
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Dual-Purpose Battery Electric Powertrain Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1182
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0608
This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
Journal Article

Application of a Novel Metal Folding Technology for Automotive BiW Design

2013-04-08
2013-01-0373
The Deep Orange [1] initiative is an integral part of the automotive graduate program at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. The initiative was developed to provide the graduate students with hands-on experience of the knowledge attained in the various engineering disciplines and related disciplines (such as marketing and human factors psychology). For the 3rd edition of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop a blank sheet hybrid mainstream sports car concept targeted towards the Generation Y (Gen Y) market segment. The objective of this paper is to explain the unique body-in-white (BiW) concept that offers space for 6-passengers and includes a dual-mode hybrid all-wheel drive powertrain. An additional objective of the project was to develop and showcase a body-in-white concept that will eliminate metal stamping and high capital investments associated with this technology (such as dies and stamping tools).
Journal Article

Conceptualization and Implementation of a 6-Seater Interior Concept for a Hybrid Mainstream Sports Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-0449
The Deep Orange [1] initiative is an integral part of the automotive graduate program at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. The initiative was developed to provide the graduate students with hands-on experience of the knowledge attained in the various engineering disciplines and related disciplines (such as marketing and human factors psychology). For the 3rd edition of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop a blank sheet hybrid mainstream sports car concept targeted towards the Generation Y (Gen Y) market segment. The objective of this paper is to explain the unique interior-seating concept that was derived from extensive analyses of the Generation Y market segment based on surveys completed by owners of new cars and light trucks in the United States. The survey data clearly indicated that a significant portion of Gen Y would prefer a vehicle with 5 or more seating positions.
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