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Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Control of an HCCI Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1031
This paper presents a strategy for closed-loop control of a multi cylinder turbo charged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A dual fuel port injection system allows control of combustion timing and load individually for each cylinder. The two fuels used are isooctane and n-heptane, which provides a wide range of autoignition properties. Cylinder pressure sensors provide feedback and information regarding combustion. The angle of 50% heat release is calculated in real time for each cycle and used for timing feedback. Inlet air preheating is used at low loads to maintain a high combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Phasing with Closed-Loop Combustion Control Using Variable Compression Ratio in a Multi Cylinder Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1830
This study applies Closed-Loop Combustion Control (CLCC) using Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) and cylinder balancing using variable lambda to solve the problem. Step changes of set points for combustion phasing, Compression Ratio (CR), and load together with ramps of engine speed and inlet air temperature are investigated. Performances of the controllers are investigated by running the engine at either a constant amount of injected fuel corresponding to an approximate load of 1.5 or 2.5 bar BMEP and/or constant speed of 2000 rpm. Commercial RON 92 gasoline is used in the test. The CLCC is found to be fast and effective and has a potential of handling step changes in a matter of cycles, while the speed and temperature ramps need some more optimization of the CLCC. The CR controller is very fast and has a time constant corresponding to three engine cycles at 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

The Potential of SNCR Based NOx Reduction in a Double Compression Expansion Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1128
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), used to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), has been a well-established technology in the power plant industry for several decades. The SNCR technique is an aftertreatment strategy based on thermal reduction of NOx at high temperatures. In the compression ignition engine application, the technology has not been applicable due to low exhaust temperatures, which makes the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system essential for efficient nitrogen oxide reduction to fulfill the environment legislation. For a general Double Compression Expansion Engine (DCEE) the complete expansion cycle is split in two separate cycles, i.e. the engine is a split cycle engine. In the first cylinder the combustion occurs and in the second stage the combustion gas is introduced and further expanded in a low-pressure expansion cylinder. The combustion cylinder is connected with the expansion cylinder through a large insulated high-pressure tank.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Comparison of Multi Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics for Diesel and Gasoline Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1811
Partially Premixed Combustion is a concept able to combine low smoke and NOx emissions with high combustion controllability and efficiency. It is of interest to be able to utilize PPC in a large operating region in order to meet the Euro VI emission legislation without relying on NOx aftertreatment. This paper investigates the differences in PPC characteristics for three fuels; Diesel Swedish Mk 1, Low Octane Gasoline (70 Octane) and US Standard Gasoline (87 Octane). Engine operating conditions, combustion characteristics, emissions and efficiency are in focus. The experiments were carried out at a range of operating points on a Volvo MD13 which is a six-cylinder heavy-duty engine. At each operating point three combinations of EGR level and λ-value were evaluated. 1. High EGR/High λ, 2. High EGR/Reduced λ, and 3. Reduced EGR/High λ.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2022
Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
Technical Paper

Influence of Inlet Pressure, EGR, Combustion Phasing, Speed and Pilot Ratio on High Load Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-05-05
2010-01-1471
The current research focuses in understanding how inlet pressure, EGR, combustion phasing, engine speed and pilot main ratio are affecting the main parameters of the combustion (e.g. efficiency, NOx, soot, maximum pressure rise rate) in the novel concept of injecting high octane number fuels in partially premixed combustion. The influence of the above mentioned parameters was studied by performing detailed sweeps at 32 bar fuel MEP (c.a. 16-18 bar gross IMEP); three different kinds of gasoline were tested (RON: 99, 89 and 69). The experiments were ran in a single cylinder heavy duty engine; Scania D12. At the end of these sweeps the optimized settings were computed in order to understand how to achieve high efficiency, low emissions and acceptable maximum pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol and Different Type of Gasoline Fuels on Partially Premixed Combustion from Low to High Load

2010-04-12
2010-01-0871
The behavior of Ethanol and seven fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline but with an Octane Number spanning from 69 to 99 was investigated in Partially Premixed Combustion. A load sweep was performed from 5 to 18 bar gross IMEP at 1300 rpm. The engine used in the experiments was a single cylinder Scania D12. To allow high load operations and achieve sufficient mixing, the compression ratio was decreased from the standard 18:1 to 14.3:1. It was shown that by using only 50% of EGR it is possible to achieve NOx below 0.30 g/kWh even at high loads. At 18 bar IMEP soot was in the range of 1-2 FSN for the gasoline fuels while it was below 0.06 FSN with Ethanol. The use of high boost combined with relatively short combustion duration allowed reaching gross indicated efficiencies in the range of 54 - 56%. At high load the partial stratified mixture allowed to keep the maximum pressure rise rate below 15 bar/CAD with most of the fuels.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion of Natural Gas and Hydrogen Enriched Natural Gas Combustion Control by Early Direct Injection of Diesel Oil and RME

2008-06-23
2008-01-1657
Natural gas and hydrogen enriched natural gas has been tested as fuels together with diesel oil and RME in a single cylinder Scania research engine. The gas was introduced as port injection while the diesel was introduced as early direct injection. Because the gas was premixed with air before combustion and the diesel was injected early in the compression stroke, the engine ran close to HCCI mode. However, a more precise description of the combustion would be PPC (Partially Premixed Combustion) as the diesel oil was not expected to be totally premixed. The experiments revealed that the combustion phasing could successfully be controlled by the amount of diesel oil injected for loads between 3.5 and 7.5 bar IMEPg at 1200 rpm. For a given combustion phasing, the hydrogen was not found to influence the required amount of diesel noticeable. However, a large difference between the RME and diesel oil could be seen by the necessity to inject more RME to obtain the same combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Operating Range of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Multi Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with Extensive EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-1127
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels and injection timings sufficiently early or late to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix extensively prior to combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection diesel PPC in a multi cylinder heavy duty engine resembling a standard build production engine. Limits in emissions and fuel consumption are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. Experiments are carried out at different engine speeds and a comparison of open and closed loop combustion control are made as well as evaluation of an extended EGR-cooling system designed to reduce the EGR temperature. In this study the PPC operating range proved to be limited.
Technical Paper

A Novel Model for Computing the Trapping Efficiency and Residual Gas Fraction Validated with an Innovative Technique for Measuring the Trapping Efficiency

2008-09-09
2008-32-0003
The paper describes a novel method for calculating the residual gas fraction and the trapping efficiency in a 2 stroke engine. Assuming one dimensional compressible flow through the inlet and exhaust ports, the method estimates the instantaneous mass flowing in and out from the combustion chamber; later the residual gas fraction and trapping efficiency are estimated combining together the perfect displacement and perfect mixing scavenging models. It is assumed that when the intake port opens, the fresh mixture is pushing out the burned charge without any mixing and after a multiple of the time needed for the largest eddy to perform one rotation, the two gasses are instantly mixed up together and expelled. The result is a very simple algorithm that does not require much computational time and is able to estimate with high level of precision the trapping efficiency and the residual gas fraction in 2 stroke engines.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operating Range in a Turbo-charged Multi Cylinder Engine with VVT and Spray-Guided DI

2009-04-20
2009-01-0494
Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has been identified as a promising way to increase the efficiency of the spark-ignited engine, while maintaining low emissions. The challenge with HCCI combustion is excessive pressure rise rate, quantified here with Ringing Intensity. Turbocharging enables increased dilution of the charge and thus a reduction of the Ringing Intensity. The engine used is an SI four cylinder base with 2.2L displacement and is equipped with a turbocharger. Combustion phasing control is achieved with individual intake/ exhaust cam phasing. Fuel injection with spray guided design is used. Cycle resolved combustion state is monitored and used for controlling the engine either in closed or open loop where balancing of cylinder to cylinder variations has to be done to run the engine at high HCCI load. When load is increased the NOx levels rise, the engine is then run in stoichiometric HCCI mode to be able to use a simple three-way catalyst.
Technical Paper

Reducing the Cycle-Cycle Variability of a Natural Gas Engine Using Controlled Ignition Current

2013-04-08
2013-01-0862
Running an internal combustion engine with diluted methane/air mixtures has a potential of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. However, diluted mixtures need high ignition energy in a sufficiently large volume, which is difficult to accomplish. Increasing the spark duration has shown to be a promising way of delivering more energy into the diluted charge, but this requires a more sophisticated ignition system. This work focuses on evaluating the effects regarding enhancing early flame development, reducing cyclic variations and extending the lean limit using a new capacitive ignition system as compared to a conventional inductive ignition system. The new system offers the opportunity to customise the spark by altering the electric pulse train characteristics choosing the number of pulses, the length of the individual pulses as well as the time delay between them.
Technical Paper

HCCI Engine Modeling and Control using Conservation Principles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0789
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) principle holds promise to increase efficiency and to reduce emissions from internal combustion engines. As HCCI combustion lacks direct ignition timing control and auto-ignition depends on the operating condition, control of auto-ignition is necessary. Since auto-ignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions, a fast combustion phasing control is necessary for reliable operation. To this purpose, HCCI modeling and model-based control with experimental validation were studied. A six-cylinder heavy-duty HCCI engine was controlled on a cycle-to-cycle basis in real time by applying in-cylinder pressure feedback. A low-complexity physical model was developed, aiming at describing the major thermodynamic and chemical interactions in the course of an engine stroke. The model shows the importance of thermal interaction between the combustion and the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning Approach to Information Extraction from Cylinder Pressure Sensors

2012-04-16
2012-01-0440
As the number of actuators and sensors increases in modern combustion engines, the task of optimizing engine performance becomes increasingly complex. Efficient information processing techniques are therefore important, both for off-line calibration of engine maps, and on-line adjustments based on sensor data. In-cylinder pressure sensors are slowly spreading from laboratory use to production engines, thus making data with high temporal resolution of the combustion process available. The standard way of using the cylinder pressure data for control and diagnostics is to focus on a few important physical features extracted from the pressure trace, such as the combustion phasing CA50, the indicated mean effective pressure IMEP, and the ignition delay. These features give important information on the combustion process, but much information is lost as the information from the high-resolution pressure trace is condensed into a few key parameters.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Engine at Low Load and Idle Operating Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0687
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective of this study is investigation of the low load limitations with gasoline fuels with octane numbers RON 69 and 87. Measurements with diesel fuel were also taken as reference. The experimental engine is a light duty diesel engine equipped with a fully flexible valve train system. Trapped hot residual gases using negative valve overlap (NVO) is the main parameter of interest to potentially increase the attainable operating region of high octane number gasoline fuels.
Technical Paper

Applicability of Ionization Current Sensing Technique with Plasma Jet Ignition Using Pre-Chamber Spark Plug in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1632
This article deals with study of ionization current sensing technique's signal characteristics while operating with pre-chamber spark plug to achieve plasma jet ignition in a 6 cylinder 9 liter turbo-charged natural gas engine under EGR and excess air dilution. Unlike the signal with conventional spark plug which can be divided into distinct chemical and thermal ionization peaks, the signal with pre-chamber spark plug shows a much larger first peak and a negligible second peak thereafter. Many studies in past have found the time of second peak coinciding with the time of maximum cylinder pressure and this correlation has been used as an input to combustion control systems but the absence of second peak makes application of this concept difficult with pre-chamber spark plug.
Technical Paper

Effect of Relative Mixture Strength on Performance of Divided Chamber ‘Avalanche Activated Combustion’ Ignition Technique in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1327
This article deals with application of a pre-chamber type ignition device in a heavy duty engine operated with natural gas. A particular pre-chamber ignition strategy called Avalanche Activated Combustion (originally ‘Lavinia Aktyvatsia Gorenia’ in Russian), commonly referred to as LAG-ignition process, has been studied by performing a parametric study of various pre- and main chamber mixture strength combinations. This strategy was first proposed in 1966 and has been mostly applied in light duty automotive engines. A majority of published data are results from developmental studies but the fundamental mechanism of the LAG-ignition process is unclear to date. To the best of authors' knowledge, the study presented in this article is the first generalized study to gain deeper understanding of the LAG-ignition process in heavy duty engines operating with natural gas as fuel for both chambers.
Technical Paper

Scalability Aspects of Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0796
This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of a Novel High Frequency Ignition System Using a Flow-Reactor Set-up

2013-10-14
2013-01-2564
Using diluted methane/air mixtures in internal combustion engines has a potential of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. However, the ignition systems used today show difficulties igniting lean mixtures. For this purpose a new high frequency (HF) ignition system using pulse generators and a resonance circuit to achieve a controlled number of sparks during a controlled period of time has been developed. A first prototype of this high frequency system has been tested in a flow-reactor and compared to a conventional ignition system. Results show that the high frequency system improves the flame development under lean conditions compared to the conventional system. Higher frequencies have higher capability of igniting lean mixtures than lower frequencies. Lower spark frequencies were found to travel faster across the electrodes than high frequencies and also compared to the conventional system.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

2013-10-14
2013-01-2603
The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
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