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Technical Paper

The Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter and Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The objective of this research was to study the effect of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) with a high loading of catalyst (50 gms/ft3) and ultra low sulfur fuel (ULSF -0.57 ppm of sulfur) on the emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine. The particulate emissions were measured using two different analytical methods, i.e., the gravimetric method and the thermal optical method (TOM). The results from the two different methods of analyses were compared. The experiments were performed at four different operating conditions chosen from the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle. A 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty engine with manually controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used to perform the emission characterization experiments. The emission characterization included total particulate matter (TPM), which is composed of the solids (SOL), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulfates (SO4) analyzed using the gravimetric method.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The objective of this research was to study the effects of a CCRT®, henceforth called Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter (DOC-CPF) system on particulate and gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) operated at Modes 11 and 9 of the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle Emissions characterized included: total particulate matter (TPM) and components of carbonaceous solids (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfates (SO4); vapor phase organics (XOC); gaseous emissions of total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2); and particle size distributions at normal dilution ratio (NDR) and higher dilution ratio (HDR). Significant reductions were observed for TPM and SOL (>90%), SOF (>80%) and XOC (>70%) across the DOC-CPF at both modes.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration

Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.

Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines

Emission and fuel economy regulations and standards are compelling manufacturers to build ultra-low emission vehicles. As a result, engineers must develop spark-ignition engines with integrated emission control systems that use reformulated low-sulfur fuel. Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines is a collection of SAE technical papers that covers the fundamentals of gasoline direct injection (DI) engine emissions and fuel economy, design variable effects on HC emissions, and advanced emission control technology and modeling approaches. All papers contained in this book were selected by an accomplished expert as the best in the field; reprinted in their entirety, they present a pathway to integrated emission control systems that meet 2004-2009 EPA standards for light-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Mobile Electric Power Technologies for the Army of the Future

A technology assessment of engines, power source and electrical technologies that can meets the needs of the future U.S. Army (“Army 21”) for cost-effective generator sets is made. Considered in this assessment are: diesel engines; stratified-charge, spark-ignited engines; homogeneous-charge, spark-ignited engines; gas turbine engines; and Stirling engines. Direct energy conversion devices including batteries, fuel cells, thermal-to-electric generators, and nuclear powered systems are also considered. In addition, potential advances in electric alternators and power conditioning, applications of networking, and noise reduction methods are discussed for possible application to the Army environment. Recommendations are made for the potential application of the different technologies for the needs of Army 21.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation into Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with Biodiesel Blends on an Engine during Active Regeneration

Active regeneration experiments were carried out on a production 2007 Cummins 8.9L ISL engine and associated diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) aftertreatment system. The effects of SME biodiesel blends were investigated to determine the particulate matter (PM) oxidation reaction rates for active regeneration. The experimental data from this study will also be used to calibrate the MTU-1D CPF model [1]. The experiments covered a range of CPF inlet temperatures using ULSD, B10, and B20 blends of biodiesel. The majority of the tests were performed at a CPF PM loading of 2.2 g/L with in-cylinder dosing, although 4.1 g/L and a post-turbo dosing injector were also investigated. The PM reaction rate was shown to increase with increasing percent biodiesel in the test fuel as well as increasing CPF temperature.
Technical Paper

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO₂ oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide - A Report of the Program Group on Diesel Exhaust Composition of the Air Pollution Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc.

A Coordinating Research Council cooperative program was conducted to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in diesel exhaust. Initially, a single-cylinder test engine was circulated among participants with poor results. Tests were then conducted at one site using a multicylinder diesel engine. Six organizations participated in the program. Exhaust analyses were conducted at steady-state engine conditions and on a 3 min cycle test. Span gases of unknown concentration were also analyzed. The participants results varied but averaged less than ±5% standard deviation both within (repeatability) and among (reproducibility) the instruments. The short cycle test was in good agreement with the steady-state measurements. No significant difference in the use of Drierite, nonindicating Drierite, or Aquasorb desiccants was evident in sampling system tests.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide (Phase IV Tests)

This is the fourth in a series of tests conducted as a Coordinating Research Council cooperative program to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze diesel exhaust gas constituents. A multi-cylinder engine was circulated to 15 participants who measured emissions at three engine conditions. All 15 participants measured nitric oxide and carbon monoxide with several laboratories measuring nitric oxide by both NDIR (Non-Dispersive Infrared) and CHEMI (Chemiluminescence). Some participants also measured carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and unknown span gases. The test results are compared with the Phase III cooperative tests which involved simultaneous measurement of emissions by participants. The precision of the results was poorer in Phase IV than Phase III.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Some Effects of Fuel Injection System Parameters on Diesel Exhaust Emissions

The products of diesel combustion, including hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and exhaust smoke are being controlled by current and future emission standards of federal and state governments. Fuel injection parameters, including tip design, injection timing, rate of injection, and the number and size of tip orifices were investigated with the unit injector, used in Detroit Diesel engines, for influence on these emissions. Results are presented to show control of hydrocarbon emissions by injector tip design. Reduction in nitric oxide emissions by changing injection parameters is limited by increased exhaust smoke and carbon monoxide and losses in fuel economy. Emission levels with the standard injector and an experimental injector, combining several injection parameter revisions, are compared with the 1973 California emission standards for diesel engines.