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Technical Paper

Laser Sheet Droplet Concentration Measurements in a High Speed Two-Stroke Engine

1997-10-27
978494
Laser sheet droplet illumination was used to visualize the concentration of fuel droplets over the piston top area. Four different cylinder designs were examined: Open transfer channels and three types of cup handle transfer channels. Optical access to the scavenging area of the engine was achieved by removing the silencer and use a window in the top of the engine. The engines were run at their rated speeds: 9000 rpm for three of the engines and 5800 rpm for one of them. Images of the concentration patterns were captured at various crank positions, −20, −10, 0, 10, 20, 30 Crank Angle Degrees (CAD) from Bottom Dead Center (BDC). Results show that the concentration of fuel droplets is higher close to the back wall of the cylinder with cup handle transfer channels. Late in the scavenging phase, the concentration pattern is more spread over the entire cylinder area, for all types of transfer channels.
Technical Paper

Operation strategy of a Dual Fuel HCCI Engine with VGT

2007-07-23
2007-01-1855
HCCI combustion is well known and much results regarding its special properties have been published. Publications comparing the performance of different HCCI engines and comparing HCCI engines to conventional engines have indicated special features of HCCI engines regarding, among other things, emissions, efficiency and special feedback-control requirements. This paper attempts to contribute to the common knowledge of HCCI engines by describing an operational strategy suitable for a dual-fuel port-injected Heavy Duty HCCI engine equipped with a variable geometry turbo charger. Due to the special properties of HCCI combustion a specific operational strategy has to be adopted for the engine operation parameters (in this case combustion phasing and boost pressure). The low exhaust temperature of HCCI engines limits the benefits of turbo charging and causes pumping losses which means that “the more the merrier” principle does not apply to intake pressure for HCCI engines.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI)

2007-07-23
2007-01-1856
Auto ignition with SI compression ratio can be achieved by retaining hot residuals, replacing some of the fresh charge. In this experimental work it is achieved by running with a negative valve overlap (NVO) trapping hot residuals. The experimental engine is equipped with a pneumatic valve train making it possible to change valve lift, phasing and duration, as well as running with valve deactivation. This makes it possible to start in SI mode, and then by increasing the NVO, thus raising the initial charge temperature it is possible to investigate the intermediate domain between SI and HCCI. The engine is then running in spark assisted HCCI mode, or spark assisted compression ignition (SACI) mode that is an acronym that describes the combustion on the borderline between SI and HCCI. In this study the effect of changing the in-cylinder flow pattern by increased swirl is studied. This is achieved by deactivating one of the two intake valves.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Glow Plug Ignition Engine by Chemiluminescence Images

2007-07-23
2007-01-1884
An experimental study of a glow plug engine combustion process has been performed by applying chemiluminescence imaging. The major intent was to understand what kind of combustion is present in a glow plug engine and how the combustion process behaves in a small volume and at high engine speed. To achieve this, images of natural emitted light were taken and filters were applied for isolating the formaldehyde and hydroxyl species. Images were taken in a model airplane engine, 4.11 cm3, modified for optical access. The pictures were acquired using a high speed camera capable of taking one photo every second or fourth crank angle degree, and consequently visualizing the progress of the combustion process. The images were taken with the same operating condition at two different engine speeds: 9600 and 13400 rpm. A mixture of 65% methanol, 20% nitromethane and 15% lubricant was used as fuel.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

2007-07-23
2007-01-1883
A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

Load Limits with Fuel Effects of a Premixed Diesel Combustion Mode

2009-06-15
2009-01-1972
Premixed diesel combustion is intended to supplant conventional combustion in the light to mid load range. This paper demonstrates the operating load limits, limiting criteria, and load-based emissions behavior of a direct-injection, diesel-fueled, premixed combustion mode across a range of test fuels. Testing was conducted on a modern single-cylinder engine fueled with a range of ultra-low sulfur fuels with cetane number ranging from 42 to 53. Operating limits were defined on the basis of emissions, noise, and combustion stability. The emissions behavior and operating limits of the tested premixed combustion mode are independent of fuel cetane number. Combustion stability, along with CO and HC emissions levels, dictate the light load limit. The high load limit is solely dictated by equivalence ratio: high PM, CO, and HC emissions result as overall equivalence ratio approaches stoichiometric.
Technical Paper

Development of an In-Cylinder Heat Transfer Model with Compressibility Effects on Turbulent Prandtl Number, Eddy Viscosity Ratio and Kinematic Viscosity Variation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0702
In-cylinder heat transfer has strong effects on engine performance and emissions and heat transfer modeling is closely related to the physics of the thermal boundary layer, especially the effects of conductivity and Prandtl number inside the thermal boundary layer. Compressibility effects on the thermal boundary layer are important issues in multi-dimensional in-cylinder heat transfer modeling. Nevertheless, the compressibility effects on kinematic viscosity and the variation of turbulent Prandtl number and eddy viscosity ratio have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, an in-cylinder heat transfer model is developed by introducing compressibility effects on turbulent Prandtl number, eddy viscosity ratio and kinematic viscosity variation with a power-law approximation. This new heat transfer model is implemented to a spark-ignition engine with a coherent flamelet turbulent combustion model and the RNG k- turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of the Relation between Flame Structure and Turbulence in HCCI Combustion by Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0061
The structure of HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion flames was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the two-dimensional gas temperature distribution using phosphor thermometry. It was found from the relation between a turbulent Reynolds number and Karlovitz number that, when compared with the flame propagation in an S.I. engine, HCCI combustion has a wider flame structure with respect to the turbulence scale. As a result of our experimentation for the influence of low temperature reaction (LTR) using two types of fuel, it was also confirmed that different types of fuel produce different histories of flame kernel structure.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Applicability of Ionization Current Sensing Technique with Plasma Jet Ignition Using Pre-Chamber Spark Plug in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1632
This article deals with study of ionization current sensing technique's signal characteristics while operating with pre-chamber spark plug to achieve plasma jet ignition in a 6 cylinder 9 liter turbo-charged natural gas engine under EGR and excess air dilution. Unlike the signal with conventional spark plug which can be divided into distinct chemical and thermal ionization peaks, the signal with pre-chamber spark plug shows a much larger first peak and a negligible second peak thereafter. Many studies in past have found the time of second peak coinciding with the time of maximum cylinder pressure and this correlation has been used as an input to combustion control systems but the absence of second peak makes application of this concept difficult with pre-chamber spark plug.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2198
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle. A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh.
Technical Paper

Flow and Temperature Distribution in an Experimental Engine: LES Studies and Thermographic Imaging

2010-10-25
2010-01-2237
Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1211
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Journal Article

How Hythane with 25% Hydrogen can Affect the Combustion in a 6-Cylinder Natural-gas Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1466
Using alternative fuels like Natural Gas (NG) has shown good potentials on heavy duty engines. Heavy duty NG engines can be operated either lean or stoichiometric diluted with EGR. Extending Dilution limit has been identified as a beneficial strategy for increasing efficiency and decreasing emissions. However dilution limit is limited in these types of engines because of the lower burnings rate of NG. One way to extend the dilution limit of a NG engine is to run the engine on Hythane (natural gas + some percentage hydrogen). Previously effects of Hythane with 10% hydrogen by volume in a stoichiometric heavy duty NG engine were studied and no significant changes in terms of efficiency and emissions were observed. This paper presents results from measurements made on a heavy duty 6-cylinder NG engine. The engine is operated with NG and Hythane with 25% hydrogen by volume and the effects of these fuels on the engine performance are studied.
Technical Paper

Influence of Inlet Pressure, EGR, Combustion Phasing, Speed and Pilot Ratio on High Load Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-05-05
2010-01-1471
The current research focuses in understanding how inlet pressure, EGR, combustion phasing, engine speed and pilot main ratio are affecting the main parameters of the combustion (e.g. efficiency, NOx, soot, maximum pressure rise rate) in the novel concept of injecting high octane number fuels in partially premixed combustion. The influence of the above mentioned parameters was studied by performing detailed sweeps at 32 bar fuel MEP (c.a. 16-18 bar gross IMEP); three different kinds of gasoline were tested (RON: 99, 89 and 69). The experiments were ran in a single cylinder heavy duty engine; Scania D12. At the end of these sweeps the optimized settings were computed in order to understand how to achieve high efficiency, low emissions and acceptable maximum pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part I: Fluid Flow and Combustion

1995-02-01
950469
The most economical way to convert truck and bus DI-diesel engines to natural gas operation is to replace the injector with a spark plug and modify the combustion chamber in the piston crown for spark ignition operation. The modification of the piston crown should give a geometry well suited for spark ignition operation with the original swirling inlet port. Ten different geometries were tried on a converted VOLVO TD102 engine and a remarkably large difference in the rate of combustion was noted between the chambers. To find an explanation for this difference a cycle resolved measurement of the in-cylinder mean velocity and turbulence was performed with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). The results show a high correlation between in cylinder turbulence and rate of heat release in the main part of combustion.
Technical Paper

Extending the Operating Region of Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion using High Octane Number Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1394
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix prior to combustion to a larger extent than with conventional diesel combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection PPC for three different fuels; Diesel, low octane gasoline with similar characteristics as diesel and higher octane standard gasoline. Limits in emissions are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. The investigation shows the benefits of using high octane number fuel for Multi-Cylinder PPC. With high octane fuel the ignition delay is made longer and the operating region of single injection PPC can be extended significantly. Experiments are carried out on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low, medium and high speed.
Technical Paper

HCCI Heat Release Data for Combustion Simulation, Based on Results from a Turbocharged Multi Cylinder Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1490
When simulating homogenous charge compression ignition or HCCI using one-dimensional models it is important to have the right combustion parameters. When operating in HCCI the heat release parameters will have a high influence on the simulation result due to the rapid combustion rate, especially if the engine is turbocharged. In this paper an extensive testing data base is used for showing the combustion data from a turbocharged engine operating in HCCI mode. The experimental data cover a wide range, which span from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm and engine loads between 100 kPa up to over 600 kPa indicated mean effective pressure in this engine speed range. The combustion data presented are: used combustion timing, combustion duration and heat release rate. The combustion timing follows the load and a trend line is presented that is used for engine simulation. The combustion duration in time is fairly constant at different load and engine speeds for the chosen combustion timings here.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching for a 4-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using a 1D Engine Simulation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2143
Naturally aspirated HCCI operation is typically limited to medium load operation (∼ 5 bar net IMEP) by excessive pressure rise rate. Boosting can provide the means to extend the HCCI range to higher loads. Recently, it has been shown that HCCI can achieve loads of up to 16.3 bar of gross IMEP by boosting the intake pressure to more than 3 bar, using externally driven compressors. However, investigating HCCI performance over the entire speed-load range with real turbocharger systems still remains an open topic for research. A 1 - D simulation of a 4 - cylinder 2.0 liter engine model operated in HCCI mode was used to match it with off-the-shelf turbocharger systems. The engine and turbocharger system was simulated to identify maximum load limits over a range of engine speeds. Low exhaust enthalpy due to the low temperatures that are characteristic of HCCI combustion caused increased back-pressure and high pumping losses and demanded the use of a small and more efficient turbocharger.
Journal Article

Some Effects of Fuel Autoignition Quality and Volatility in Premixed Compression Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0607
Previous work has shown that it may be advantageous to use gasoline type fuels with long ignition delays compared to today's diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. In the present work we investigate if high volatility is also needed along with low cetane (high octane) to get more premixed combustion leading to low NO and smoke. A single-cylinder light-duty compression ignition engine is run on four fuels in the diesel boiling range and three fuels in the gasoline boiling range. The lowest cetane diesel boiling range fuel (DCN = 22) also has very high aromatic content (75%vol) but the engine can be run on this to give very low NO (≺ 0.4 g/kWh) and smoke (FSN ≺ 0.1), e.g,. at 4 bar and 10 bar IMEP at 2000 RPM like the gasoline fuels but unlike the diesel fuels with DCNs of 40 and 56. If the combustion phasing and delay are matched for any two fuels at a given operating condition, their emissions behavior is also matched regardless of the differences in volatility and composition.
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