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Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching for a 4-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using a 1D Engine Simulation

Naturally aspirated HCCI operation is typically limited to medium load operation (∼ 5 bar net IMEP) by excessive pressure rise rate. Boosting can provide the means to extend the HCCI range to higher loads. Recently, it has been shown that HCCI can achieve loads of up to 16.3 bar of gross IMEP by boosting the intake pressure to more than 3 bar, using externally driven compressors. However, investigating HCCI performance over the entire speed-load range with real turbocharger systems still remains an open topic for research. A 1 - D simulation of a 4 - cylinder 2.0 liter engine model operated in HCCI mode was used to match it with off-the-shelf turbocharger systems. The engine and turbocharger system was simulated to identify maximum load limits over a range of engine speeds. Low exhaust enthalpy due to the low temperatures that are characteristic of HCCI combustion caused increased back-pressure and high pumping losses and demanded the use of a small and more efficient turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Comprehensive CFD Model of Diesel Spray Atomization Accounting for High Weber Numbers

Modern diesel engines operate under injection pressures varying from 30 to 200 MPa and employ combinations of very early and conventional injection timings to achieve partially homogeneous mixtures. The variety of injection and cylinder pressures results in droplet atomization under a wide range of Weber numbers. The high injection velocities lead to fast jet disintegration and secondary droplet atomization under shear and catastrophic breakup mechanisms. The primary atomization of the liquid jet is modeled considering the effects of both infinitesimal wave growth on the jet surface and jet turbulence. Modeling of the secondary atomization is based on a combination of a drop fragmentation analysis and a boundary layer stripping mechanism of the resulting fragments for high Weber numbers. The drop fragmentation process is predicted from instability considerations on the surface of the liquid drop.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion With a Sequential Fluid Mechanics-Multizone Chemical Kinetics Model

We have developed a methodology for analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engines that applies to conditions in which there is some stratification in the air-fuel distribution inside the cylinder at the time of combustion. The analysis methodology consists of two stages: first, a fluid mechanics code is used to determine temperature and equivalence ratio distributions as a function of crank angle, assuming motored conditions. The distribution information is then used for grouping the mass in the cylinder into a two-dimensional (temperature-equivalence ratio) array of zones. The zone information is then handed on to a detailed chemical kinetics model that calculates combustion, emissions and engine efficiency information. The methodology applies to situations where chemistry and fluid mechanics are weakly linked.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Valve Timing on Gasoline Engine Performance and Hydrocarbon Emissions

Despite remarkable progress made over the past 30 years, automobiles continue to be a major source of hydrocarbon emissions. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether variable exhaust valve opening (EVO) and exhaust valve closing (EVC) can be used to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. An automotive gasoline engine was tested with different EVO and EVC timings under steady-state and start-up conditions. The first strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with standard EVC. Although exhaust gas temperature is increased and catalyst light-off time is reduced, the rapid drop in cylinder temperature increases cylinder-out hydrocarbons to such a degree that a net increase in hydrocarbon emissions results. The second strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with early EVC. Early EVO reduces catalyst light-off time by increasing exhaust gas temperature and early EVC keeps the hydrocarbon-rich exhaust gas from the piston crevice from leaving the cylinder.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling HCCI Combustion With High Levels of Residual Gas Fraction - A Comparison of Two VVA Strategies

Adjusting the Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) by means of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) is a strong candidate for controlling the ignition timing in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. However, at high levels of residual gas fraction, insufficient mixing can lead to the presence of considerable temperature and composition variations. This paper extends previous modeling efforts to include the effect of RGF distribution on the onset of ignition and the rate of combustion using a multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code (KIVA-3V) sequentially with a multi-zone code with detailed chemical kinetics. KIVA-3V is used to simulate the gas exchange processes, while the multi-zone code computes the combustion event. It is shown that under certain conditions the effect of composition stratification is significant and cannot be captured by a single-zone model or a multi-zone model using only temperature zones.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction and its Application to Heat Transfer Analysis

In this paper, a new method for cylinder pressure reconstruction is proposed based on the concept of a dimensionless pressure curve in the frequency domain. It is shown that cylinder pressure profiles, acquired over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, exhibit similarity. Hence, cylinder pressure traces collapse into a set of dimensionless curves within a narrow range after normalization in the frequency domain. The dimensionless pressure traces can be described by a curve-fit family, which can be used for reconstructing pressure diagrams back into the time domain at any desired condition. The accuracy associated with this method is analyzed and its application to engine heat transfer analysis is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

This paper discusses the compression ratio influence on maximum load of a Natural Gas HCCI engine. A modified Volvo TD100 truck engine is controlled in a closed-loop fashion by enriching the Natural Gas mixture with Hydrogen. The first section of the paper illustrates and discusses the potential of using hydrogen enrichment of natural gas to control combustion timing. Cylinder pressure is used as the feedback and the 50 percent burn angle is the controlled parameter. Full-cycle simulation is compared to some of the experimental data and then used to enhance some of the experimental observations dealing with ignition timing, thermal boundary conditions, emissions and how they affect engine stability and performance. High load issues common to HCCI are discussed in light of the inherent performance and emissions tradeoff and the disappearance of feasible operating space at high engine loads.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Cycle-By-Cycle Transient Heat Release Analysis in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Diesel Engine

This study presents a systematic methodology for performing transient heat release analysis in a diesel engine. Novel techniques have been developed to infer the mass of air trapped in the cylinder and the mass of fuel injected on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The cyclic mass of air trapped in the cylinder is found accounting for pressure gradients, piston motion and short-circuiting during the valve overlap period. The cyclic mass of fuel injected is computed from the injection pressure history. These parameters are used in conjunction with cycle-resolved pressure data to accurately define the instantaneous thermodynamic state of the mixture. This information is used in the calculation and interpretation of transient heat release profiles.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Piston Compounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine Through Computer Simulation

This paper describes the concept and a practical implementation of piston-compounding. First, a detailed computer simulation of the piston-compounded engine is used to shed light into the thermodynamic events associated with the operation of this engine, and to predict the performance and fuel economy of the entire system. Starting from a baseline design, the simulation is used to investigate changes in system performance as critical parameters are varied. The latter include auxiliary cylinder and interconnecting manifold volumes for a given main cylinder volume, auxiliary cylinder valve timings in relation to main cylinder timings, and degree of heat loss to the coolant. Optimum designs for either highest power density or highest thermal efficiency (54%) are thus recommended. It is concluded that a piston-compounded adiabatic engine concept is a promising future powerplant.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Inlet Port Design in a Uniflow-Scavenged Engine Using a 3-D Turbulent Flow Code

The finite volume, three-dimensional, turbulent flow code ARIS-3D is applied to the study of the complex flow field through the inlet port and within the cylinder of a uniflow-scavenged engine. The multiblock domain decomposition technique is used to accommodate this complex geometry. In this technique, the domain is decomposed into two blocks, one block being the cylinder and the other being the inlet duct. The effects of inlet duct length, geometric port swirl angle, and number of ports on swirl generating capability are explored. Trade-offs between swirl level and inherent pressure drop can thus be identified, and inlet port design can be optimized.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies

A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system has been developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder reciprocator diesel model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against available experimental engine test data. The use of the model is illustrated by predicting the performance gains and the component design trade-offs associated with a partially insulated engine achieving a 40 percent reduction in heat loss over a baseline cooled engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ceramic Coatings on Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions

An experimental investigation of the effects of ceramic coatings on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was conducted. Tests were carried out over a range of engine speeds at full load for a standard metal piston and two pistons insulated with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thick ceramic coatings. The thinner (0.5 mm) ceramic coating resulted in improved performance over the baseline engine, with the gains being especially pronounced with decreasing engine speed. At 1000 rpm, the 0.5 mm ceramic coated piston produced 10% higher thermal efficiency than the metal piston. In contrast, the relatively thicker coating (1 mm), resulted in as much as 6% lower thermal efficiency compared to baseline. On the other hand, the insulated engines consistently presented an attractive picture in terms of their emissions characteristics. Due to the more complete combustion in the insulated configurations, exhaust CO levels were between 30% and 60% lower than baseline levels.