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Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings for High Output Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are perceived as enabling technology to increase low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine performance and improve its longevity. The state of the art of thermal barrier coating is the plasma spray zirconia. In addition, other material systems have been investigated for the next generation of thermal barrier coatings. The purpose of this TBC program is to focus on developing binder systems with low thermal conductivity materials to improve the coating durability under high load and temperature cyclical conditions encountered in the real engine. Research and development (R&D) and analysis were conducted on aluminum alloy piston for high output turbocharged diesel engine coated with TBC.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Bore Coating for Extreme Operating Conditions

Adiabatics, Inc., with the support of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research & Development Engineering Center (TARDEC) has developed a low cost, durable ceramic composite cylinder bore coating for diesel engines operating under severe conditions. This bore coating is a ceramic composite consisting primarily of Iron Oxide, Iron Titanate and Partially Stabilized Zirconia. It is applied by unique chemical thermal bonding technology developed at Adiabatics, Inc. and is referred to as Low Temperature Iron Titanate (LTIT). This coating has been tested against a wide range of cylinder bore treatments ranging from hard chrome plate to hard Nickel Silicon Carbide (NikaSil) and found to provide a superior sliding wear surface. It is superior because it is compatible against most common piston ring materials and coatings.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Monolithic Ceramic Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Components

The future of maintaining a superior mobile military ground vehicle fleet rests in high power density propulsion systems. As the U.S. Government desires to convert its powerplant base to heavy fuel operation, there arises the opportunity to incorporate new advanced materials into these heavy fuel engines. These newer materials serve the purpose of decreasing powerplant weight and develop new component designs to take advantage of improved strength and temperature capability of those materials. In addition, the military continues the effort for a non-watercooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine. This type of engine demands the use of ceramic and advanced ceramic composite material hardware. Furthermore, today's higher pressure fuel injection systems, coupled with reduced air/fuel ratio as a means of increasing horsepower to size and weight, will require thermal protection or change in material specification for many of the engine's components.
Technical Paper

Injection Characteristics that Improve Performance of Ceramic Coated Diesel Engines

Thin thermal barrier ceramic coatings were applied to a standard production direct injection diesel engine. The resultant fuel economy when compared to the standard metallic engine at full load and speed (2600) was 6% better and 3.5% better at 1600 RPM. Most coated diesel engines todate have not shown significant fuel economy one way or the other. Why are the results more positive in this particular case? The reasons were late injection timing, high injection pressure with high injection rates to provide superior heat release rates with resultant lower fuel consumption. The recent introduction of the high injection pressure fuel injection system makes it possible to have these desirable heat release rates at the premixed combustion period. Of course the same injection characteristics were applied to the standard and the thin thermal barrier coating case. The thin thermal barrier coated engine displayed superior heat release rate.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Engine Component Exploratory Design Development

Significant progress has been achieved in the development of advanced high-temperature, insulated, in-cylinder components for high-power-output miliraty diesel engines. Computer aided modeling and small-bore engine component testing have both been utilized extensively during the exploratory development process. Specific insulated optimal designs for the piston, cylinder headface, and cylinder liner have been identified. The designs all utilize thermal barrier coatings, titanium alloy, and interfacial air-gaps to provide thermal resistance. Finite element modeling including diesel cycle simulation has been utilized to screen and optimize material and design concepts relative to program objectives, while small-bore engine testing has been utilized to demonstrate component integrity. An improved slurry densified thermal barrier coating has been demonstrated by testing on a high temperature small-bore engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ceramic Coatings on Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions

An experimental investigation of the effects of ceramic coatings on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was conducted. Tests were carried out over a range of engine speeds at full load for a standard metal piston and two pistons insulated with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thick ceramic coatings. The thinner (0.5 mm) ceramic coating resulted in improved performance over the baseline engine, with the gains being especially pronounced with decreasing engine speed. At 1000 rpm, the 0.5 mm ceramic coated piston produced 10% higher thermal efficiency than the metal piston. In contrast, the relatively thicker coating (1 mm), resulted in as much as 6% lower thermal efficiency compared to baseline. On the other hand, the insulated engines consistently presented an attractive picture in terms of their emissions characteristics. Due to the more complete combustion in the insulated configurations, exhaust CO levels were between 30% and 60% lower than baseline levels.
Technical Paper

Advances in High Temperature Components for the Adiabatic Engine

An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has been selected based on a trade-off between thermal insulating performance and available technology. The engine concept heat rejection performance is limited by available ring-liner tribology and requires cylinder liner cooling to control the piston top ring reversal temperature. This engine concept is composed of a titanium piston, headface plate and cylinder liner insert with thermal barrier coatings. Monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts, and thermal barrier coated valves and intake-exhaust ports complete the insulation package. The tribological system is composed of chrome oxide coated cylinder, M2 steel top piston ring, M2 steel valve guides, and an advanced polyol ester class lubricant.
Technical Paper

Insulated Miller Cycle Diesel Engine

This paper investigates theoretically the benefits of the Miller cycle diesel engine with and without low heat rejection on thermodynamic efficiency, brake power, and fuel consumption. It further illustrates the effectiveness of thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model which includes a friction model is used to estimate the overall improvement in engine performance. Miller cycle is accomplished by closing the intake valve late and the engine components are coated with PSZ for low heat rejection. A significant improvement in brake power and thermal efficiency are observed.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for I.C. Engines

This paper investigates theoretically the effects of heat transfer characteristics, such as crank-angle phasing and wall temperature swings, on the thermodynamic efficiency of an IC engine. The objective is to illustrate the fundamental physical basis of applying thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model illustrates how the thermal impedance and thickness of coatings can be manipulated to control heat transfer and limit the high temperatures in engine components. A friction model is also included to estimate the overall improvement in engine efficiency by the proper selection of coating thickness and material.
Technical Paper

Cummins/TACOM Advanced Adiabatic Engine

Cummins Engine Company, Inc. and the U.S. Army have been jointly developing an adiabatic turbocompound engine during the last nine years. Although progress in the early years was slow, recent developments in the field of advanced ceramics have made it possible to make steady progress. It is now possible to reconsider the temperature limitation imposed on current heat engines and its subsequent influence on higher engine efficiency when using an exhaust energy utilization system. This paper presents an adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine concept in which high performance ceramics are used in its design. The adiabatic turbocompound engine will enable higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and higher exhaust energy recovery, resulting in higher thermal engine efficiency. This paper indicates that the careful selection of ceramics in engine design is essential.
Technical Paper

Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for Engines

Contrary to the thick thermal barrier coating approach used in adiabatic diesel engines, the authors have investigated the merits of thin coatings. Transient heat transfer analysis indicates that the temperature swings experienced at combustion chamber surfaces depend primarily on material thermophysical properties, i.e., conductivity, density, and specific heat. Thus, cyclic temperature swings should be alike whether thick or thin (less than 0.25 mm) coatings are applied, Furthermore, thin coatings would lead to lower mean component temperatures and would be easier to apply than thick coatings. The thinly-coated engine concept offers several advantages including improved volumetric efficiency, lower cylinder liner wall temperatures, improved piston-liner tribological behavior, and improved erosion-corrosion resistance and thus greater component durability.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Thin Ceramic Coatings on Spark-Ignition Engine Performance

An experimental study of the effects of thin ceramic thermal barrier coatings on the performance of a spark-ignited gasoline engine was conducted. A modified 2.5 liter GM engine with ceramic-coated pistons, liners, head, valves and ports was used. Experimental results obtained from the ceramic engine were compared with baseline metal engine data. It was shown that at low-speed part-load conditions encountered in typical driving cycles the ceramic engine could achieve up to 18% higher brake power and up to 10% lower specific fuel consumption. At wide open throttle conditions, the two engines exhibited similar characteristics, except at high speeds where the metal engine showed better performance at the expense of inferior fuel economy. The ceramic coating did not produce any observable knock in the engine and showed no significant wear at the conclusion of the testing phase.