Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Journal Article

Characterizing One-day Missions of PHEVs Based on Representative Synthetic Driving Cycles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0885
This paper investigates series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) behavior during one-day with synthesized representative one-day missions. The amounts of electric energy and fuel consumption are predicted to assess the PHEV impact on the grid with respect to the driving distance and different charging scenarios: (1) charging overnight, (2) charging whenever possible. The representative cycles are synthesized using the extracted information from the real-world driving data in Southeast Michigan gathered through the Field Operational Tests (FOT) conducted by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The real-world driving data include 4,409 trips covering 830 independent days and temporal distributions of departure and arrival times. The sample size is large enough to represent real-world driving.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Modeling and Evaluation of the Engine Options in Conventional and Mild-Hybrid Powertrain

2013-04-08
2013-01-1449
The focus of this paper is on developing, modeling and simulation framework for a bias free comparison of different engine concepts in a conventional and hybrid configuration. The first unique contribution of this paper is in the development of a shift logic algorithm that allows tailoring the shift schedule to unique engine characteristics in a consistent manner. The shift schedule is intentionally generated in a generic manner by using identical set of rules for all engines. Therefore, the methodology allows a fair comparison of different engine concepts, while taking into account the individual features of the engine i.e. speed range, efficiency and maximum performance. The latter establishes a baseline for the subsequent study of hybrid configurations. The second unique contribution is the hybrid strategy optimization algorithm, also tailored to a particular engine configuration.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0175
The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Real-World Driving Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0840
This paper proposes a framework to perform design optimization of a series PHEV and investigates the impact of using real-world driving inputs on final design. Real-World driving is characterized from a database of naturalistic driving generated in Field Operational Tests. The procedure utilizes Markov chains to generate synthetic drive cycles representative of real-world driving. Subsequently, PHEV optimization is performed in two steps. First the optimal battery and motor sizes to most efficiently achieve a desired All Electric Range (AER) are determined. A synthetic cycle representative of driving over a given range is used for function evaluations. Then, the optimal engine size is obtained by considering fuel economy in the charge sustaining (CS) mode. The higher power/energy demands of real-world cycles lead to PHEV designs with substantially larger batteries and engines than those developed using repetitions of the federal urban cycle (UDDS).
Technical Paper

Self-Learning Neural Controller for Hybrid Power Management Using Neuro-Dynamic Programming

2011-09-11
2011-24-0081
A supervisory controller strategy for a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of the two power sources onboard of a vehicle to maximize objectives like fuel economy. In the past, various control strategies have been developed using heuristics as well as optimal control theory. The Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) has been previously applied to determine implementable optimal control policies for discrete time dynamic systems whose states evolve according to given transition probabilities. However, the approach is constrained by the curse of dimensionality, i.e. an exponential increase in computational effort with increase in system state space, faced by dynamic programming based algorithms. This paper proposes a novel approach capable of overcoming the curse of dimensionality and solving policy optimization for a system with very large design state space.
Technical Paper

Series Hydraulic Hybrid System for a Passenger Car: Design, Integration and Packaging Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1031
This paper is on the development process of a hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicle. A subcompact passenger vehicle is chosen for modification into a series hydraulic hybrid with the aim of achieving a fuel economy of 100 MPG (2.35 L/100km) on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This work develops a methodology for simultaneously designing a powertrain and power management strategy of a series hydraulic hybrid. The design process was initiated by developing a system level model validated using engine and hydraulic pump/motor testing by the US EPA at the National Vehicle and Fuel Efficiency Laboratory (NVFEL). Parametric studies were performed in order to determine the size of the pump/motors and accumulators. Several candidate engines were tested and the system models were used to determine which one could provide the best fuel economy while meeting performance constraints.
Technical Paper

Real-World Driving Pattern Recognition for Adaptive HEV Supervisory Control: Based on Representative Driving Cycles in Midwestern US

2012-04-16
2012-01-1020
Impact of driving patterns on fuel economy is significant in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Driving patterns affect propulsion and braking power requirement of vehicles, and they play an essential role in HEV design and control optimization. Driving pattern conscious adaptive strategy can lead to further fuel economy improvement under real-world driving. This paper proposes a real-time driving pattern recognition algorithm for supervisory control under real-world conditions. The proposed algorithm uses reference real-world driving patterns parameterized from a set of representative driving cycles. The reference cycle set consists of five synthetic representative cycles following the real-world driving distance distribution in the US Midwestern region. Then, statistical approaches are used to develop pattern recognition algorithm. Driving patterns are characterized with four parameters evaluated from the driving cycle velocity profiles.
Journal Article

Optimization of the Series-HEV Control with Consideration of the Impact of Battery Cooling Auxiliary Losses

2014-04-01
2014-01-1904
This paper investigates the impact of battery cooling ancillary losses on fuel economy, and optimal control strategy for a series hybrid electric truck with consideration of cooling losses. Battery thermal model and its refrigeration-based cooling system are integrated into vehicle model, and the parasitic power consumption from cooling auxiliaries is considered in power management problem. Two supervisory control strategies are compared. First, a rule-based control strategy is coupled with a thermal management strategy; it controls power system and cooling system separately. The second is optimal control strategy developed using Dynamic Programming; it optimizes power flow with consideration of both propulsion and cooling requirement. The result shows that battery cooling consumption could cause fuel economy loss as high as 5%.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

2014-04-01
2014-01-1801
The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-0204
The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Series Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion for a Light Truck - Optimizing the Thermostatic Power Management

2007-09-16
2007-24-0080
The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator, and this provides part of the motivation for a simulation-based approach to development of the system power management. The vehicle is a 4×4 truck weighing 5112 kg and intended for both on- and off-road use.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for a Light Truck

2007-10-30
2007-01-4151
The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator, and this provides part of the motivation for a simulation-based approach to development of the system power management. The vehicle is based on the HMMWV platform, a 4×4 off-road truck weighing 5112 kg.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Comprehensive CFD Model of Diesel Spray Atomization Accounting for High Weber Numbers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1546
Modern diesel engines operate under injection pressures varying from 30 to 200 MPa and employ combinations of very early and conventional injection timings to achieve partially homogeneous mixtures. The variety of injection and cylinder pressures results in droplet atomization under a wide range of Weber numbers. The high injection velocities lead to fast jet disintegration and secondary droplet atomization under shear and catastrophic breakup mechanisms. The primary atomization of the liquid jet is modeled considering the effects of both infinitesimal wave growth on the jet surface and jet turbulence. Modeling of the secondary atomization is based on a combination of a drop fragmentation analysis and a boundary layer stripping mechanism of the resulting fragments for high Weber numbers. The drop fragmentation process is predicted from instability considerations on the surface of the liquid drop.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) System for the HMMWV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0442
The development and use of a simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) for a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is presented here. While the primary purpose of an ISA is to provide electric power for additional accessories, it can also be utilized for mild hybridization of the powertrain. In order to explore ISA's potential for improving HMMWV's fuel economy, an ISA model capable of both producing and absorbing mechanical power has been developed in Simulink. Based on the driver's power request and the State of Charge of the battery (SOC), the power management algorithm determines whether the ISA should contribute power to, or absorb power from the crankshaft. The system is also capable of capturing some of the braking energy and using it to charge the battery. The ISA model and the power management algorithm have been integrated in the Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM), a SIMULINK-based vehicle model previously developed at the University of Michigan.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1087
Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Technical Paper

Cam-Phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Maximizing Torque Output

2005-10-24
2005-01-3757
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
Journal Article

Low-Cost Pathway to Ultra Efficient City Car: Series Hydraulic Hybrid System with Optimized Supervisory Control

2009-09-13
2009-24-0065
A series hydraulic hybrid concept (SHHV) has been explored as a potential pathway to an ultra-efficient city vehicle. Intended markets would be congested metropolitan areas, particularly in developing countries. The target fuel economy was ~100 mpg or 2.4 l/100km in city driving. Such an ambitious target requires multiple measures, i.e. low mass, favorable aerodynamics and ultra-efficient powertrain. The series hydraulic hybrid powertrain has been designed and analyzed for the selected light and aerodynamic platform with the expectation that (i) series configuration will maximize opportunities for regeneration and optimization of engine operation, (ii) inherent high power density of hydraulic propulsion and storage components will yield small, low-cost components, and (iii) high efficiency and high power limits for accumulator charging/discharging will enable very effective regeneration.
Technical Paper

Computational Investigation of the Stratification Effects on DI/HCCI Engine Combustion at Low Load Conditions

2009-11-02
2009-01-2703
A numerical study has been conducted to investigate possible extension of the low load limit of the HCCI operating range by charge stratification using direct injection. A wide range of SOI timings at a low load HCCI engine operating condition were numerically examined to investigate the effect of DI. A multidimensional CFD code KIVA3v with a turbulent combustion model based on a modified flamelet approach was used for the numerical study. The CFD code was validated against experimental data by comparing pressure traces at different SOI’s. A parametric study on the effect of SOI on combustion has been carried out using the validated code. Two parameters, the combustion efficiency and CO emissions, were chosen to examine the effect of SOI on combustion, which showed good agreement between numerical results and experiments. Analysis of the in-cylinder flow field was carried out to identify the source of CO emissions at various SOI’s.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOX and Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Instantaneous Mixing of Fuel and Water

2007-04-16
2007-01-0125
Meeting diesel engine emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles can be achieved by simultaneous injection of fuel and water. An injection system for instantaneous mixing of fuel and water in the combustion chamber has been developed by injecting water in a mixing passage located in the periphery of the fuel spray. The fuel spray is then entrained by water and hot air before it burns. The experimental work was carried out on a Rapid Compression Machine and on a Komatsu direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. It was also supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the injection and combustion processes in order to evaluate the effect of water vapor distribution on cylinder temperature and NOX formation. It has been concluded that when the water injection is appropriately timed, the combustion speed is slower and the cylinder temperature lower than in conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of an In-Cylinder Heat Transfer Model with Compressibility Effects on Turbulent Prandtl Number, Eddy Viscosity Ratio and Kinematic Viscosity Variation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0702
In-cylinder heat transfer has strong effects on engine performance and emissions and heat transfer modeling is closely related to the physics of the thermal boundary layer, especially the effects of conductivity and Prandtl number inside the thermal boundary layer. Compressibility effects on the thermal boundary layer are important issues in multi-dimensional in-cylinder heat transfer modeling. Nevertheless, the compressibility effects on kinematic viscosity and the variation of turbulent Prandtl number and eddy viscosity ratio have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, an in-cylinder heat transfer model is developed by introducing compressibility effects on turbulent Prandtl number, eddy viscosity ratio and kinematic viscosity variation with a power-law approximation. This new heat transfer model is implemented to a spark-ignition engine with a coherent flamelet turbulent combustion model and the RNG k- turbulence model.
X