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Technical Paper

Biomechanical Properties of the Human Neck in Lateral Flexion

1975-02-01
751156
Properties of the human neck which may influence a person's susceptibility to “whiplash” injury during lateral impact have been studied in 96 normal subjects. Subjects were chosen on the basis of age, sex, and stature and data were grouped into six primary categories based on sex (F, M) and age (18-24, 35-44, 62-74). The data include: measures of head, neck and body anthropometry in standing and simulated automotive seating positions, three-dimensional range of motion of the head and neck, head/neck response to low-level acceleration, and both stretch reflex time and voluntary isometric muscle force in the lateral direction. Reflex times are found to vary from about 30 to 70 ms with young and middle aged persons having faster times than older persons, and females having faster times than males. Muscle strength decreases with age and males are, on the average, stronger than females.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness Investigation of General Aviation Accidents

1975-02-01
750537
General aviation accident investigations can provide valuable data to the design engineer concerning the crash performance of current models and can indicate needed improvements for occupant protection in future aircraft. Current statistics and the historical background of major investigations during the past 65 years are provided. A five-year study of general aviation accidents occurring in the State of Michigan is used as a basis to illustrate recent findings relative to occupant injury mechanisms, relative crash protection, and crashworthiness performance of current models of aircraft. Results indicate that the degree of structural damage may not relate to the degree of occupant injury when the cabin area remains relatively intact. A primary requirement is documented for adequate upper-torso restraint for all occupants, and the excellent crash performance of such a system is described.
Technical Paper

Experimental Impact Protection with Advanced Automotive Restraint Systems: Preliminary Primate Tests with Air Bag and Inertia Reel/Inverted-Y Yoke Torso Harness

1967-02-01
670922
Both the inverted-Y yoke torso harness with inertia reel and the air bag restraint system have had extensive independent development for some time by several engineering and research organizations for both aviation and ground vehicle occupant protection. The research reported in this paper consists of the first biomechanical primate evaluation of these concepts as experimentally adapted for possible automotive use. These tests are a continuation of a study involving the relative impact protection and effectiveness of major restraint systems utilized in general aviation aircraft and in limited automotive use. The objective of this test series was to determine how much protection those advanced restraint concepts provided; to obtain preliminary biomechanical and physiological data; to identify problems of technique and applications in occupant protection; and to provide an initial basis for direction of future test requirements.
Technical Paper

Occupant Impact Injury Tolerances for Aircraft Crashworthiness Design

1971-02-01
710406
Human impact injury and survival tolerance levels for various crash conditions are presented on the basis of currently available biomedical and biomechanical knowledge. Consideration of physical factors influencing trauma-including body orientation, restraint system, magnitude, distribution, and time duration of deceleration-are summarized, as well as tabulations and sources of data for both whole body and regional impact tolerances. These biological data concerning human impact tolerances are provided as guidelines for improved engineering design of general aviation crashworthiness.
Technical Paper

Civil Aircraft Restraint Systems: State-of-the-Art Evaluation of Standards, Experimental Data, and Accident Experience

1977-02-01
770154
The importance of crashworthiness and the role of restraint systems in occupant impact protection in U.S. civil aircraft design is being increasingly recognized. Current estimates of the number of fatalities which could be prevented annually in survivable accidents range from 33 to 94%. This study reviews the development of existing Federal Aviation Administration restraint system standards from the first requirement for safety belts in the Air Commerce Regulations of 1926 to present 14 CFR 1.1. The FAA and industry standards are critically evaluated for Parts 23 (small airplanes), 25 (air transports), 27 (rotorcraft), and 29 (transport category rotorcraft). State-of-the-art developments, including an overview of previous accident experience, results of experimental studies, comparison with other standards, and primary data sources are provided.
Technical Paper

Impact Protection in Air Transport Passenger Seat Design

1982-02-01
821391
Knowledge of human impact tolerance(s) is a basic consideration in the improved design of air transport seat-restraint systems and occupant crash protection. This paper discusses biological factors which influence tolerance, defines tolerance levels, variables including whole body and regional impact, and effect of seat and body orientation. It is concluded that the ultimate inertial forces on the occupant specified in FAR 25.561 are not based upon human tolerance considerations; that human impact survival is estimated to be four to ten times the voluntary levels cited; that improved occupant protection requires dynamically tested structural improvements: and that currently available technology such as the NASA air transport seat, or rear-facing seats, should be utilized.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Aspects of Emergency Egress from a Business Jet

1981-04-01
810617
Past research has shown that although occupants often survive crash impacts of business jet aircraft, they are often injured either in the course of egress or because they are unable to evacuate. A physical task analysis was performed to evaluate procedures for emergency egress from a typical business jet to demonstrate how possible human factors problems can be identified. First, the tasks required for the flight crew to evacuate via all possible routes were determined. Second, each task was divided into a series of physical elements, such as reach and grasp, corresponding to each movement or exertion. Third, physical aspects of the aircraft affecting performance of each element such as location and force, were measured. The physical requirements of each element were compared with available human factors data, to rate its difficulty. Selected aspects of the analysis are discussed.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Evaluation of Steering Wheel Design

1982-02-01
820478
In a crash, impact against the steering assembly can be a major cause of serious and fatal injury to drivers. But the interrelationship between injury protection and factors of surface area, configuration, padding, relative position of the spokes, and number and stiffness of spokes and rim is not clear. This paper reports a series of high-G sled tests conducted with anesthetized animal subjects in 30 mph impacts at 30 G peaks. A total of eight tests were conducted, five utilizing pig subjects, one a female chimpanzee, one an anthropomorphic dummy, and one test with no subject. Instrumentation included closed circuit TV, a tri-axial load cell mounted between the steering wheel and column, seat belt load measurement, six Photo-Sonics 1000 fps motion picture cameras, and poloroid photography. Medical monitoring pre, during and post-impact was followed by gross and microscopic tissue examination.
Technical Paper

Driver Body Size Considerations in Future U. S. Heavy Truck Interior Cab Design

1981-02-01
810218
Accurate data on the body dimensions of truck drivers are needed and such data are not presently available. This paper provides basic source data and an anthropometrical overview of the usefulness and limitations of existing data bases; discusses the influence of population factors, including age, sex, and demographic variables; and reviews population sampling problems. Heavy truck drivers as a whole appear to represent a physically different population from that of either the U.S. general population or other professional groups. Future anthropometric surveys must provide information for improved accommodation for the increasing range of physical size of users, and for obtaining data more useful to engineers involved in heavy truck interior cab design.
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