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Technical Paper

Potential Applications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in internal Combustion Engine Designs

1987-11-08
871225
With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission. The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Modeling of Emissions from Medium-Duty Vehicles Operating on Fisher-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1080
West Virginia University has conducted research to characterize the emissions from medium-duty vehicles operating on Fischer-Tropsch synthetic gas-to-liquid compression ignition fuel. The West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was used to collect data for gaseous emissions (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbon) while the vehicles were exercised through a representative driving schedule, the New York City Bus Cycle (NYCB). Artificial neural networks were used to model emissions to enhance the capabilities of computer-based vehicle operation simulators. This modeling process is presented in this paper. Vehicle velocity, acceleration, torque at rear axel, and exhaust temperature were used as inputs to the neural networks. For each of the four gaseous emissions considered, one set of training data and one set of validating data were used, both based on the New York City Bus Cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years

2010-10-05
2010-01-1967
Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of an Over-the-Road Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-2001
Heavy-duty trucks are an important sector to evaluate when seeking fuel consumption savings and emissions reductions. With fuel costs on the rise and emissions regulations becoming stringent, vehicle manufacturers find themselves spending large amounts of capital improving their products in order to be compliant with regulations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkits (PSAT), developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a simulation tool that helps mitigate costs associated with research and automotive system design. While PSAT has been widely used to predict the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of conventional and hybrid light-duty vehicles, it also may be employed to test heavy-duty vehicles. The intent of this study was to develop an accurate model that predicts emissions and fuel economy for heavy-duty vehicles for use within PSAT.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Bi-Fuel Engine for Performance Equivalent to Gasoline

1994-10-01
942003
A bi-fuel engine capable of operating either on compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline is being developed for the transition to alternative fuel usage. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder engine was selected as a base powerplant. A control system that allows closed-loop optimization of both fuel delivery and spark timing was developed. Stock performance and emissions of the engine, as well as performance and emissions with the new controller on gasoline and CNG, have been documented. CNG operation in an engine designed for gasoline results in power loss because of the lower volumetric efficiency with gaseous fuel use, yet such an engine does not take advantage of the higher knock resistance of CNG. It is the goal of this research to use the knock resistance of CNG to recover the associated power loss. The two methods considered for this include turbocharging with a variable boost wastegate and raising the compression ratio while employing variable valve timing.
Technical Paper

A Controller for a Spark Ignition Engine with Bi-Fuel Capability

1994-10-01
942004
A bi-fuel engine with the ability to run optimally on both compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline is being developed. Such bi-fuel automotive engines are necessary to bridge the gap between gasoline and natural gas as an alternative fuel while natural gas fueling stations are not yet common enough to make a dedicated natural gas vehicle practical. As an example of modern progressive engine design, a Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder dual overhead cam (DOHC) engine has been selected as a base powerplant for this development. Many previous natural gas conversions have made compromises in engine control strategies, including mapped open-loop methods, or resorting to translating the signals to or from the original controller. The engine control system described here, however, employs adaptive closed-loop control, optimizing fuel delivery and spark timing for both fuels.
Technical Paper

Emissions Comparisons of Twenty-Six Heavy-Duty Vehicles Operated on Conventional and Alternative Fuels

1993-11-01
932952
Gaseous and particulate emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are affected by fuel types, vehicle/engine parameters, driving characteristics, and environmental conditions. Transient chassis tests were conducted on twenty-six heavy-duty vehicles fueled with methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), #1 diesel, and #2 diesel, using West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory. The vehicles were operated on the central business district (CBD) testing cycle, and regulated emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. Comparisons of regulated emissions results revealed that the vehicles powered on methanol and CNG produced much lower particulate emissions than the conventionally fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Performance of a High Speed Engine with Dual Fuel Capability

1994-03-01
940517
Concern over dwindling oil supplies has led to the adoption of alternate fuels to power fleet vehicles. However, during the interim period when alternate fuel supply stations are few and far between, dual fuel engines prove a necessity. In the light duty arena, these engines are typically gasoline engines modified to accommodate compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternate fuel, but they are seldom optimized with both fuels in mind. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4 cylinder dual overhead cam engine was selected as a base for developing an optimized gasoline/CNG powerplant. Baseline data on power and steady state emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, HC) were found using the standard Saturn controller. In addition to monitoring standard sensor measurements, real-time pressure traces were taken for up to 256 cycles using a modified head with embedded PCB piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Stability in a Bi-Fuel Spark Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950468
A Saturn 1.9 liter engine has been converted for operation on either compressed natural gas or gasoline. A bi-fuel controller (BFC) that uses closed-loop control methods for both fuel delivery and spark advance has been developed. The performance and emissions during operation on each fuel have been investigated with the BFC, as well as the performance and emissions with the stock original equipment manufacturer (OEM) controller using gasoline. In-cylinder pressure was measured at a rate of 1024 points per revolution with piezoelectric pressure transducers flush-mounted in the cylinder head. The in-cylinder pressure was used in real time for ignition timing control purposes, and was stored by a data acquisition system for the investigation of engine stability and differences in the combustion properties of the fuels.
Technical Paper

A Study of Emissions from CNG and Diesel Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1993-10-01
932826
The West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was employed to conduct chassis dynamometer tests in the field to measure the exhaust emissions from heavy-duty buses and trucks. This laboratory began operation in the field in January, 1992. During the period January, 1992 through June, 1993, over 150 city buses, trucks, and tractors operated by 18 different authorities in 11 states were tested by the facility. The tested vehicles were powered by 14 different types of engines fueled with natural gas (CNG or LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), #2 diesel, and low sulfur diesel (#1 diesel or Jet A). Some of the tested vehicles were equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems. In this paper, a total of 12 CNG-fueled and #2 diesel-fueled transit buses equipped with Cummins L-10 engines, were chosen for investigation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Two-Stroke Linear Engine-Alternator Combination

1999-03-01
1999-01-0921
Series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require power-plants that can generate electrical energy without specifically requiring rotary input shaft motion. A small-bore working prototype of a two-stroke spark ignited linear engine-alternator combination has been designed, constructed and tested and has been found to produce as much as 316W of electrical energy. This engine consists of two opposed pistons (of 36 mm diameter) linked by a connecting rod with a permanent magnet alternator arranged on the reciprocating shaft. This paper presents the numerical modeling of the operation of the linear engine. The piston motion of the linear engine is not mechanically defined: it rather results from the balance of the in-cylinder pressures, inertia, friction, and the load applied to the shaft by the alternator, along with history effects from the previous cycle. The engine computational model combines dynamic and thermodynamic analyses.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

2012-06-01
2011-01-2469
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR

2018-04-03
2018-01-0985
With continuously increasing concern for the emissions from two-stroke engines including regulated hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, non-road engines are implementing proven technologies from the on-road market. For example, four stroke diesel generators now include additional internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) via an intake/exhaust valve passage. EGR can offer benefits of reduced HC, NOx, and may even improve combustion stability and fuel efficiency. In addition, there is particular interest in use of natural gas as fuel for home power generation. This paper examines exhaust throttling applied to the Helmholtz resonator of a two-stroke, port injected, natural gas engine. The 34 cc engine was air cooled and operated at wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions at an engine speed of 5400 RPM with fueling adjusted to achieve maximum brake torque. Exhaust throttling served as a method to decrease the effective diameter of the outlet of the convergent cone.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1278
This paper examines the energy pathways of a 29cc air-cooled two-stroke engine operating on natural gas with different exhaust geometries. The engine was operated at wide-open-throttle at a constant speed of 5400 RPM with ignition adjusted to yield maximum brake torque while the fueling was adjusted to examine both rich and lean combustion. The exhaust configurations examined included an off-the-shelf (OTS) model and two other custom models designed on Helmholtz resonance theory. The custom designs included both single and multi-cone features. Out of the three exhaust systems tested, the model with maximum trapping efficiency showed a higher overall efficiency due to lower fuel short-circuiting and heat transfer. The heat transfer rate was shown to be 10% lower on the new designs relative to OTS model.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Windage and Vibrational Losses in Flexure Springs of a One kW Two-Stroke Free Piston Linear Engine Alternator

2019-04-02
2019-01-0816
Methods to quantify the energy losses within linear motion devices that included flexural springs as the main suspension component were investigated. The methods were applied to a two-stroke free-piston linear engine alternator (LEA) as a case study that incorporated flexure springs to add stiffness to the mass-spring system. Use of flexure springs is an enabling mechanism for improving the efficiency and lifespan in linear applications e.g. linear engines and generators, cryocoolers, and linear Stirling engines. The energy loss due to vibrations and windage effects of flexure springs in a free piston LEA was investigated to quantify possible energy losses. A transient finite element solver was used to determine the effects of higher modes of vibration frequencies of the flexure arms at an operational frequency of 65 Hz. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to determine the effects of drag force on the moving surfaces of flexures at high frequencies.
Technical Paper

NOX Decomposition in Natural Gas, Diesel and Gasoline Engines for Selective NOX Recirculation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2144
Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps in NOX reduction. The first step adsorbs NOX from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. The final step passes the desorbed NOX gas into the intake air stream and feeds into the engine. A percentage of the NOX is expected to be decomposed during the combustion process. The motivation for this research was to clarify the reduction of NOX from large stationary engines. The objective of this paper is to report the NOX decomposition phenomenon during the combustion process from three test engines. The results will be used to develop an optimal system for the conversion of NOX with a NOX adsorbtion system. A 1993 Cummins L10G natural gas engine, a 1992 Detroit Diesel series 60 engine and a 13hp Honda gasoline engine were used in the experiments. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was injected into the engine intake to mimic the NOX stream from the desorption process.
Technical Paper

Impact of Vehicle Weight on Truck Behavior and Emissions, using On-Board Measurement

2005-10-24
2005-01-3788
On-board emissions measurement for heavy-duty vehicles has taken on greater significance because new standards now address in-use emissions levels in the USA. Emissions compliance must be shown in a “Not-to-exceed” (NTE) zone that excludes engine operation at low power. An over-the-road 1996 Peterbilt tractor was instrumented with the West Virginia University Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS). The researchers determined how often the truck entered the NTE, and the emissions from the vehicle, as it was driven over different routes and at different test weights (20,740 lb, 34,640 lb, 61,520 lb, and 79,700 lb) The MEMS interfaced with the truck ECU, while also measuring exhaust flowrate, and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust. The four test routes that were employed included varying terrain types in order to simulate a wide range of on-road driving conditions. One route (called the Bruceton route) included a sustained hill climb.
Technical Paper

A Configuration for a Continuously Variable Power-Split Transmission in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0571
Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are usually used in small vehicles due to power limitations on the variable elements. Continuously variable power-split transmissions (CVPST) were developed in order to reduce the fraction of power passing through the variable elements [1,2]. The configuration presented in this paper includes a planetary gear train (PGT), which in combination with the CVT allows the power to be split and therefore increase the power envelope of the system. The PGT also provides a branch that can be used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) operation through an electric motor. A conceptual design of a CVPST for a HEV is presented in this paper. The objectives are to show the different operational modes, with diagrams, perform a power analysis, develop the velocity and force equations and finally show the performance of the system with an example application.
Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

2007-01-23
2007-01-0054
Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

2007-01-23
2007-01-0060
Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
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