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Technical Paper

Upper Neck Response of the Belt and Air Bag Restrained 50th Percentile Hybrid III Dummy in the USA's New Car Assessment Program

1998-11-02
983164
Since 1994, the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has compiled upper neck loads for the belt and air bag restrained 50th percentile male Hybrid III dummy. Over five years from 1994 to 1998, in frontal crash tests, NCAP collected upper neck data for 118 passenger cars and seventy-eight light trucks and vans. This paper examines these data and attempts to assess the potential for neck injury based on injury criteria included in FMVSS No. 208 (for the optional sled test). The paper examines the extent of serious neck injury in real world crashes as reported in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The results suggest that serious neck injuries do occur at higher speeds for crashes involving occupants restrained by belts in passenger cars.
Technical Paper

RAID - An Investigative Tool to Study Air Bag/Upper Extremity Interactions

1997-02-24
970399
A study of frontal collisions using the NASS data base showed that there were four times as many arm injuries to belt restrained drivers who had an air bag deploy than for the drivers who were simply belted. By far, the distal forearm/hand was the most commonly injured region. Hard copy review identified two modes of arm injury related to the deploying air bag: 1) The arm is directly contacted by the air bag module and/or flap cover, and 2) The arm is flung away and contacts an interior car surface. Based on the field studies, a mechanical device called the Research Arm Injury Device (RAID) was fabricated to assess the aggressivity of air bags from different manufacturers. Results from static air bag deployment tests with the RAID suggested that the RAID was able to clearly distinguish between the aggressive and non-aggressive air bags. Maximum moments ranging between 100 Nm and 650 Nm, and hand fling velocity ranging between 30 and 120 km/h were measured on the RAID in these tests.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Axial Tolerance of the Human Foot-Ankle Complex

1996-11-01
962426
Axial loading of the calcaneus-talus-tibia complex is an important injury mechanism for moderate and severe vehicular foot-ankle trauma. To develop a more definitive and quantitative relationship between biomechanical parameters such as specimen age, axial force, and injury, dynamic axial impact tests to isolated lower legs were conducted at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). Twenty-six intact adult lower legs excised from unembalmed human cadavers were tested under dynamic loading using a mini-sled pendulum device. The specimens were prepared, pretest radiographs were taken, and input impact and output forces together with the pathology were obtained using load cell data. Input impact forces always exceeded the forces recorded at the distal end of the preparation. The fracture forces ranged from 4.3 to 11.4 kN.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Human Cadaver and Hybrid III Subjects with a Steering Assembly

1987-11-01
872202
Nineteen sled impact tests were conducted simulating a frontal collision exposure for an unrestrained driver. The deceleration sled buck configuration utilized the passenger compartment of a late model compact passenger vehicle, a rigid driver's seat, and a custom fabricated energy-absorbing steering column and wheel assembly. Sled impact velocities ranged from 24.1 to 42.6 km/hr. The purpose of the study was to investigate the kinematic and kinetic interaction of the driver and the energy-absorbing steering assembly and their relationship to the thoracic/abdominal injuries produced. The similarities and differences between human cadaver and anthropomorphic dummy subjects were quantified.
Technical Paper

Injury Mechanism of the Head and Face of Children in Side Impacts

2009-04-20
2009-01-1434
This study assessed the primary involved physical components attributed to the head and face injuries of child occupants seated directly adjacent to the stuck side of a vehicle in a side impact collision. The findings presented in this study were based upon analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) for the years 1993–2007. Injury analysis was conducted for those nearside child occupants aged between 1–12 years-old. The involved children were classified as toddler-type, booster-type, or belted-type occupants. These classifications were based upon the recommended restraint system for the occupant. Injury mechanisms were assessed for the child occupants in each of the three groups. A detailed study of NASS/CDS cases was conducted to provide a greater understanding of the associated injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Foot and Ankle Injuries to Drivers in Between-Rail Crashes

2013-04-08
2013-01-1243
The research question investigated in this study is what are the key attributes of foot and ankle injury in the between-rail frontal crash? For the foot and ankle, what was the type of interior surface contacted and the type of resulting trauma? The method was to study with in-depth case reviews of NASS-CDS cases where a driver suffered an AIS=2 foot or ankle injury in between-rail crashes. Cases were limited to belted occupants in vehicles equipped with air bags. The reviews concentrated on coded and non-coded data, identifying especially those factors contributing to the injuries of the driver's foot/ankle. This study examines real-world crash data between the years 1997-2009 with a focus on frontal crashes involving 1997 and later model year vehicles. The raw data count for between-rail crashes was 732, corresponding to 227,305 weighted, tow-away crashes.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Vehicle Structural Integrity and Occupant Injury Potential in Full-frontal and Offset-frontal Crash Tests

2000-03-06
2000-01-0879
The frontal crash standard in the USA specifies that the full front of a vehicle impact a rigid barrier. Subsequently, the European Union developed a frontal crash standard that requires 40 percent of the front of a vehicle to impact a deformable barrier. The present study conducted paired crashes of vehicles using the full-frontal barrier procedure and the 40 percent offset deformable barrier procedure. In part, the study was to examine the feasibility of adding an offset test procedure to the frontal crash standard in the USA. Frontal-offset and full-frontal testing was conducted using both the mid-size (50th percentile male Hybrid III) and the small stature (5th percentile female Hybrid III) dummies. Five vehicle models were used in the testing: Dodge Neon, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, Chevrolet Venture and Ford Contour. In the crash tests, all dummies were restrained with the available safety belt systems and frontal air bags.
Technical Paper

Using Forefoot Acceleration to Predict Forefoot Trauma in Frontal Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0704
A common injury type among foot and ankle injury is the Lisfranc trauma, or injury to the forefoot. The Lisfranc injury indicates abnormal alignment of the tarsal-metatarsal joints with the loss of their normal spatial relationships. In 2003, Smith completed a laboratory study of this injury mechanism at Wayne State University [1, 2]. He found Lisfranc trauma was correlated with impact force to the forefoot. He proposed a probability of injury function that is based on the applied force to the forefoot. This study examined the instrumentation in the foot of the dummies in the USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (IIHS) frontal crashes. Nineteen different passenger vehicles representing four different vehicle classes were selected based mostly on a large presence in the USA vehicle fleet. Both NCAP and IIHS crashed these nineteen makes and models.
Journal Article

A Study of the Rear Seat Occupant Safety using a 10-Year-Old Child Dummy in the New Car Assessment Program

2008-04-14
2008-01-0511
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a total of 28 frontal crashes in the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) involving the 10-year-old child Hybrid III dummy. The 10-year-old child dummy was in the rear seat. All types of vehicles (passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans and pick-up trucks) were tested to assess the effect of restraint systems such as booster and pretensioner on the rear seat occupant. In this study, the readings of the 10-year-old child dummy in rear-left and rear-right seat positions are examined. The authors apply a possible 5 star rating system, based on head and chest readings of the 10-year-old dummy. The paper also assesses the safety performance of rear seat occupants and the effect of the restraint systems on a child in the rear seat. This paper suggests that a star rating for rear seat occupants is independent of the present ratings for the driver and front adult passenger in NCAP.
Journal Article

Frontal Crash Protection in Pre-1998 Vehicles versus 1998 and Later Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0142
This investigation addresses and evaluates: (1) belted drivers in frontal crashes; (2) crashes divided into low, medium, and high severity; (3) air-bag-equipped passenger vehicles separated into either model years 1985 - 1997 (with airbags) or model years 1998 - 2008; (4) rate of Harm as a function of crash severity and vehicle model year; and (5) injury patterns associated with injured body regions and the involved physical components, by vehicle model year. Comparisons are made between the injury patterns related to drivers seated in vehicles manufactured before 1998 and those manufactured 1998 or later. The purpose of this comparative analysis is to establish how driver injury patterns may have changed as a result of the introduction of more recent safety belt technology, advanced airbags, or structural changes.
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