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Technical Paper

Validation of Advanced Combustion Models Applied to Two-Stage Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0714
Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell.
Journal Article

Clean Diesel Combustion by Means of the HCPC Concept

2010-04-12
2010-01-1256
Homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is triggered by spontaneous ignition in dilute homogeneous mixtures. The combustion rate must be reduced by suitable solutions such as high rates of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and/or lean mixtures. HCCI is considered a very effective way to reduce engine pollutant emissions, however only a few HCCI engines have entered into production. HCCI combustion currently cannot be extended to the whole engine operating range, especially to high loads, since the use of EGR displaces air from the cylinder, limiting engine mean effective pressure, thus the engine must be able to operate also in conventional mode. This paper concerns a study of an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fuelled engines. The concept consists in forming a pre-compressed homogeneous charge outside the cylinder and gradually admitting it into the cylinder during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Reducing Particulate and NOx Using Multiple Injections and EGR in a D.I. Diesel

1995-02-01
950217
An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of EGR and multiple injections on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. EGR is known to be effective at reducing NOx, but at high loads there is usually a large increase in particulate. Recent work has shown that multiple injections are effective at reducing particulate. Thus, it was of interest to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing particulate and NOx with the combined use of EGR and multiple injections. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty truck engine. Tests were done at high load (75% of peak torque at 1600 RPM where EGR has been shown to produce unacceptable increases in particulate emissions. The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of up to four independent injections per cycle.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Diesel Flame Imaging Compared with Numerical Computations

1995-02-01
950455
An image acquisition-and-processing camera system was developed for in-cylinder diagnostics of a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with an electronically-controlled common-rail fuel injection system that allowed both single and split (multiple) injections to be studied. The imaging system uses an endoscope to acquire luminous flame images from the combustion chamber and ensures minimum modification to the engine geometry. The system also includes an optical linkage, an image intensifier, a CID camera, a frame grabber, control circuitry and a computer. Experiments include both single and split injection cases at 90 MPa and 45 MPa injection pressures at 3/4 load and 1600 rev/min with simulated turbocharging. For the single injection at high injection pressure (90 MPa) the results show that the first luminous emissions from the ignition zone occur very close to the injector exit followed by rapid luminous flame spreading.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0864
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at a medium engine load of 9 bar net IMEP and was also found to be effective to prevent excessive rates of pressure rise. Parameters used in the experiments were guided from the KIVA-CHEMKIN code with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism including injection timings, fuel percentages, and intake valve closing (IVC) timings for dual-fuel PCCI combustion. The engine experiments were conducted with a conventional common rail injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) and demonstrated control and versatility of dual-fuel PCCI combustion with the proper fuel blend, SOI and IVC timings.
Technical Paper

Improving Diesel Engine Performance Using Low and High Pressure Split Injections for Single Heat Release and Two-Stage Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0340
This study explores an Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) that employs multiple injections at both low and high pressures to reduce spray-wall impingement, control combustion phasing, and limit pressure rise rates in a Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) engine. Previous computational studies have shown that reducing the injection pressure of early injections can prevent spray-wall impingement caused by long liquid penetration lengths. This research focuses on understanding the performance and emissions benefits of low and high pressure split injections through experimental parametric sweeps of a 0.48 L single-cylinder test engine operating at 2000 rev/min and 5.5 bar nominal IMEP. This study examines the effects of 2nd injection pressure, EGR, swirl ratio, and 1st and 2nd injection timing, for both single heat release and two-peak high temperature heat release cases. In order to investigate the AIS concept experimentally, a Variable Injection Pressure (VIP) system was developed.
Journal Article

An Optical Investigation of Ignition Processes in Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0345
The ignition process of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion was investigated using engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. The experiments were performed using a modified all metal heavy-duty, compression-ignition engine. The engine was fueled using commercially available gasoline (PON 91.6) and ULSD diesel delivered through separate port and direct injection systems, respectively. Experiments were conducted at a steady state-engine load of 4.5 bar IMEP and speed of 1300 rev/min. In-cylinder optical measurements focused on understanding the fuel decomposition and fuel reactivity stratification provided through the charge preparation. The measurement technique utilized point location optical access through a modified cylinder head with two access points in the firedeck. Optical measurements of natural thermal emission were performed with an FTIR operating in the 2-4.5 μm spectral region.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of High EGR, High Equivalence Ratio, and Mixing Time on Emissions Levels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for PCCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0026
Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine at high speed (1737 rev/min) and loads up to 60% of full load for fully Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. The engine was equipped with a high pressure (150 MPa) Caterpillar 300B HEUI fuel injection system. The engine was run with EGR levels up to 75% and with equivalence ratios up to 0.95. These experiments resulted in compliance of NOx and PM emissions to 2010 emissions mandates levels up to the tested load. The set of experiments also demonstrated the importance of cylinder charge preparation by way of optimized start-of-combustion timing for sufficient in-cylinder mixing. It was found that increased EGR rates, even with the correspondingly increased equivalence ratios, increase mixing time and substantially decrease PM emissions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Combustion Strategies Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0917
Optimizations were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine for NOx, PM and BSFC reductions. The engine was equipped with a Caterpillar 300B HEUI fuel injection system capable of up to four injections with timings from 90 BTDC to 90 ATDC. The engine was operated at a medium load (57%), high speed (1737 rev/min) operation point. A micro-genetic algorithm was utilized to optimize a hybrid, double-injection strategy, which incorporated an early, premixed pilot injection with a late main injection. The fuel injection parameters, intake boost pressure, and EGR were considered in the optimization. The optimization produced a parameter set that met the 2007 and 2010 PM emissions mandate of 0.0134 g/kW-hr, and was within the 1.5x not to exceed NOx + HC mandate of 2.694 g/kW-hr. Following the optimization exercise, further parametric interaction studies were performed to reveal the underlying interactions and phenomena.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion and Emissions of HSDI Diesel Engines Using Injectors with Different Included Spray Angles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1150
Combustion in an HSDI diesel engine using different injectors to realize low emissions is modeled using detailed chemical kinetics in this study. Emission characteristics of the engine are investigated using injectors that have different included spray angles, ranging from 50 to 130 degrees. The engine was operated under PCCI conditions featuring early injection times, high EGR levels and high intake temperatures. The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) model was used with the KIVA code for combustion and emission modeling. Modeling results show that spray targeting plays an important role in determining the in-cylinder mixture distributions, which in turn affect the resulting pollutant emissions. High soot emissions are observed for injection conditions that result in locally fuel rich regions due to spray impingement normal to the piston surface.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on near Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0121
Stoichiometric combustion could enable a three-way catalyst to be used for treating NOx emissions of diesel engines, which is one of the most difficult species for diesel engines to meet future emission regulations. Previous study by Lee et al. [1] showed that diesel engines can operate with stoichiometric combustion successfully with only a minor impact on fuel consumption. Low NOx emission levels were another advantage of stoichiometric operation according to that study. In this study, the characteristics of stoichiometric diesel combustion were evaluated experimentally to improve fuel economy as well as exhaust emissions The effects of fuel injection pressure, boost pressure, swirl, intake air temperature, combustion regime (injection timing), and engine load (fuel mass injected) were assessed under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1442
A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Automated Genetic Algorithms

2002-03-04
2002-01-0960
A micro-genetic algorithm (μGA) optimization method was applied to a heavy-duty, direct-injected diesel engine via an automated test bed system. The goal of this application was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of automated optimization experiments. With the genetic algorithm, no user input was required other than the factors of interest and their allowable ranges. This means that once the routine was initiated, it was essentially run undisturbed until a preset objective level was reached or a preset number of generations had been run. The automated μGA was successfully demonstrated at all points of the six-mode transient cycle simulation, excluding idle. To accomplish the automated experiments, an automated testing system was developed around a Caterpillar single-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Genetic Algorithms for the Optimization of Injection Strategies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0219
In this paper, optimized single and double injection schemes were found using multi-dimensional engine simulation software (KIVA-3V) and a micro-genetic algorithm for a heavy duty diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was at 1737 rev/min and 57 % load. The engine simulation code was validated using an engine equipped with a hydraulic-electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system. Five important parameters were used for the optimization - boost pressure, EGR rate, start-of-injection timing, fraction of fuel in the first pulse and dwell angle between first and second pulses. The optimum results for the single injection scheme showed significant improvements for the soot and NOx emissions. The start of injection timing was found to be very early, which suggests HCCI-like combustion. Optimized soot and NOx emissions were reduced to 0.005 g/kW-hr and 1.33 g/kW-hr, respectively, for the single injection scheme.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Soot Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0121
Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0912
High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Journal Article

Experiments and Modeling of Dual-Fuel HCCI and PCCI Combustion Using In-Cylinder Fuel Blending

2009-11-02
2009-01-2647
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively.
Journal Article

Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection

2012-04-16
2012-01-1131
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Intake Condition and Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Fuel Economy and Combustion Noise for Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1123
The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
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