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Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Potential of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for the Analysis of Combustion CCV and Knock Tendency in a High Performance Engine

The paper reports the application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to LES calculations for the analysis of combustion and knock tendency in a highly downsized turbocharged GDI engine that is currently under production. In order to qualitatively match the cyclic variability of the combustion process, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the closed-valve portion of the cycle is used with cycle-dependent initial conditions from a previous multi-cycle analysis [1, 2, 3]. Detailed chemical modelling of fuel's auto-ignition quality is considered through an ad-hoc implemented look-up table approach, as a trade-off between the need for a reasonable representation of the chemistry and that of limiting the computational cost of the LES simulations. Experimental tests were conducted operating the engine at knock-limited spark advance (KLSA) and the proposed knock model was previously validated for such engine setup [3].
Technical Paper

Three Way Catalyst Modeling with Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Kinetics for a Lean Burn Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine

A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Surface Film Models for Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray-Wall Interaction

Surface film formation is an important phenomenon during spray impingement in a combustion chamber. The film that forms on the chamber walls and piston bowl produces soot post-combustion. While some droplets stick to the wall surface, others splash and interact with the gas present inside the combustion chamber. Accurate prediction of both the film thickness and splashed mass is crucial for surface film model development since it leads to a precise estimation of the amount of soot and other exhaust gases formed. This information could guide future studies aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the combustion process and might enable development of engines with reduced emissions. Dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model implemented for in-cylinder sprays [1] has shown to predict the flow structure of a spray more accurately than the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines Based on Swept-Volume Method

A swept-volume method of calculating the volume swept by the flame during each time step is developed and used to improve the calculation of fuel reaction rates. The improved reaction rates have been applied to the ignition model and coupled with the level set G-equation combustion model. In the ignition model, a single initial kernel is formed after which the kernel is convected by the gas flow and its growth rate is determined by the flame speed and thermal expansion due to the energy transfer from the electrical circuit. The predicted ignition kernel size was compared with the available experimental data and good agreements were achieved. Once the ignition kernel reaches a size when the fully turbulent flame is developed, the G-equation model is switched on to track the mean turbulent flame front propagation.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional-Modeling-Based Development of a Novel 2-Zone Combustion Chamber Applied to Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

A novel 2-zone combustion chamber concept (patent pending) was developed using multi-dimensional modeling. At minimum volume, an axial projection in the piston divides the volume into distinct zones joined by a communication channel. The projection provides a means to control the mixture formation and combustion phasing within each zone. The novel combustion system was applied to reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Results from the study of an 8.8 bar BMEP, 2600 RPM operating condition are presented for the light-duty engine. The results from the heavy-duty engine are at an 18.1 bar BMEP, 1200 RPM operating condition. The effect of several major design features were investigated including the volume split between the inner and outer combustion chamber volumes, the clearance (squish) height, and the top ring land (crevice) volume.
Journal Article

Guidelines for Interpreting Soot Luminosity Imaging

One way to develop an understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes that occur during direct injection and combustion in an internal combustion engine is to image the natural luminosity from soot over time. Imaging is possible when there is optical access to the combustion chamber. After the images are acquired, the next challenge is to properly interpret the luminous distributions that have been captured on the images. A major focus of this paper is to provide guidance on interpretation of experimental images of soot luminosity by explaining how radiation from soot is predicted to change as it is transmitted through the combustion chamber and to the imaging. The interpretations are only limited by the scope of the models that have been developed for this purpose. The end-goal of imaging radiation from soot is to estimate the amount of soot that is present.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear, Non-Linear and Generalized RNG-Based k-epsilon Models for Turbulent Diesel Engine Flows

In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
Journal Article

A Zero-Dimensional Phenomenological Model for RCCI Combustion Using Reaction Kinetics

Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
Technical Paper

Intake and In-Cylinder Flow Modeling Characterization of Mixing and Comparison with Flow Bench Results

A modified version of the three dimensional CFD code KIVA-3, which accommodates moving valves and a moving piston crown, has been applied to a heavy-duty, four cycle, dual intake valve, direct injection, diesel engine The fluid domain encompasses an intake runner, two valved ports and a cylinder with a Mexican hat bowl-in-piston configuration In the first part of the study, the modified KIVA-3 code was used to simulate the flow through the port and cylinder of the engine without a piston The intake valves were cycled (300 rpm at the camshaft) Two turbulence models were compared in this part of the study, standard k - ε and the RNG modified k - ε as discussed in [11] The results were compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) images Large scale flow features of the computer simulations agreed moderately well with the ensemble averaged flow bench results There was very little difference between the results from the two turbulence models Motored engine simulations including a piston were conducted to characterize the in-cylinder gas flow and mixing during the intake and compression strokes Characterization methods were developed which yield insight into the in-cylinder gas motion and mixing during both strokes Intake and residual gases are tracked separately, both large scale convection and turbulent mixing are investigated, flow critical points are examined to provide information about flow topology and turbulence production is correlated with the evolution of flow structures Results show that mixing of the intake and residual gases is very non-uniform Many complex flow structures develop during intake and are destroyed during compression However, several structures survive through compression and contribute to enhanced mixing near top dead center These significant structures have been identified and tracked back to intake The flow field near top dead center exhibits spatial inhomogeneities in temperature and small scale mixing parameters such as turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of High Powered Diesel Mode Transition Using Large Eddy Simulations

Numerical investigation is carried out to explore various strategies of combustion mode switching in a diesel engine operating at high power. Numerical results are compared with high power single cylinder (CAT 3401E) experiments for combustion phasing and emission characteristics. In this study CFD calculations are carried out using the KIVA CFD code with Large Eddy Simulation turbulence model and Direct Chemistry Solver sub-models. The advanced turbulence and combustion sub-models enabled more realistic visualization of the effects of single-cycle mode switching on in-cylinder flow structures, fuel-air mixing behavior and combustion phasing. Two circumstances of mode switch are presented in this study. Mode switches are performed from traditional High Temperature Combustion to early injection PCCI combustion and vice versa. In this investigation several aspects of combustion control are investigated.
Technical Paper

On LES Grid Criteria for Spray Induced Turbulence

Using non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulations (LES) turbulence model, spray=induced turbulence is investigated on a number of different Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) grids of varying mesh sizes (from 0.5 to 2 mm mesh). Turbulent flow is induced inside a quiescent chamber by liquid fuel spray and then left to decay after end of injection by virtue of its molecular viscosity and turbulent dissipation. Coherent structures (CS) of this turbulent flow are constructed and visualized using λ2 definition. Using CS, analysis is performed on the turbulent flow around the liquid spray jet. These CS from LES are then compared against the results from RANS calculations as well. The visualization of CS helps to explain the mechanism of fuel-air mixing obtained from LES results and its difference with RANS calculations.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Validation of an LES Multi Mode Combustion Model for Diesel Combustion

Diesel engine combustion is simulated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a multi-mode combustion (MMC) model. The MMC model is based on the combination of chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and quasi-steady flamelet calculations in different local combustion regimes. The local combustion regime is identified by two combustion indices based on the local temperature and the extent of mixture homogeneity. The LES turbulence model uses the dynamic structure model (DSM) for sub-grid stresses. A new spray model in the LES context is used, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based wall model is retained with the LES derived scales. These models are incorporated in the KIVA3V-ERC-Release 2 code for engine combustion simulations. A wide range of diesel engine operating conditions were chosen to validate the combustion model.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Scalar Dissipation Rate in an Internal Combustion Engine

A novel algebraic similarity model for subgrid scalar dissipation rate has been developed as part of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) package KIVA3V-LES for diesel engine study. The model is proposed from an a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence. In the a posteriori test, fully resolved turbulent passive scalar field measurements are used to validate the model in actual engine flows. For reason of the length limit by SAE and the specific interest in engine applications, only a prior test and a posteriori test in engine flows are included in this paper. A posteriori tests in isotropic cube flow, turbulent round jet and flame cases will be presented in separate papers. An engine LES simulation of multi consecutive cycles was performed in this study.
Journal Article

An Efficient Level-Set Flame Propagation Model for Hybrid Unstructured Grids Using the G-Equation

Computational fluid dynamics of gas-fueled large-bore spark ignition engines with pre-chamber ignition can speed up the design process of these engines provided that 1) the reliability of the results is not affected by poor meshing and 2) the time cost of the meshing process does not negatively compensate for the advantages of running a computer simulation. In this work a flame propagation model that runs with arbitrary hybrid meshes was developed and coupled with the KIVA4-MHI CFD solver, in order to address these aims. The solver follows the G-Equation level-set method for turbulent flame propagation by Tan and Reitz, and employs improved numerics to handle meshes featuring different cell types such as hexahedra, tetrahedra, square pyramids and triangular prisms. Detailed reaction kinetics from the SpeedCHEM solver are used to compute the non-equilibrium composition evolution downstream and upstream of the flame surface, where chemical equilibrium is instead assumed.
Journal Article

Effects of Numerical Schemes on Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Planar Gas Jet and Diesel Spray

Three time integration schemes and four finite volume interpolation schemes for the convection term in momentum equation were tested under turbulent planar gas jet and Sandia non-reacting vaporizing Spray-H cases. The three time integration schemes are the first-order Euler implicit scheme, the second-order backward scheme, and the second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme. The four spatial interpolation schemes are cubic central, linear central, upwind, and vanLeer schemes. Velocity magnitude contour, centerline and radial mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles for the planar turbulent gas jet case, and fuel vapor contour and liquid and vapor penetrations for the Diesel spray case predicted by the different numerical schemes were compared. The sensitivity of the numerical schemes to mesh resolution was also investigated. The non-viscosity based dynamic structure subgrid model was used. The numerical tool used in this study was OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Diesel Combustion Regimes

Numerical investigation is carried out in order to explore diesel combustion using advanced turbulence and combustion models. Turbulence is modeled by one-equation non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Sub-grid fuel-air mixing is calculated using a dynamic scale similarity sub-grid scalar dissipation model to represent the local state of combustion. Fuel-air mixing time scale is used in order to determine the local in-homogeneity and rate of mixing of fuel and air. Diesel combustion is studied and compared with experimental results for high power diesel engine setup at different conditions representing both low temperature combustion and traditional high temperature combustion regimes. Further studies are carried out in diesel engine to investigate in-cylinder fuel air mixing and the onset of ignition.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.