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Technical Paper

Two-Stroke Engine Design With Selective Exhaust Gas Recirculation - a Concept

1997-10-27
978493
High unburned hydrocarbon emissions and poor fuel consumption arise in a carburetted two-stroke engine because of its scavenging process. Time resolved hydrocarbon concentration at the exhaust port has shown a definite trend in concentration of unburned hydrocarbon with respect to crank angle. This paper discusses an exhaust gas recirculation system designed to trap fraction of the exhaust gas that is rich in short circuited fresh charge. In this design, the differential pressure between the crankcase and the exit at the exhaust port is communicated with each other at the appropriate time through passages in the piston and the cylinder block. The design is thus capable of selectively trapping and recirculating fraction of the exhaust gas rich in short circuited fresh charge back into the cylinder for combustion.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Coating for Aluminum Engine and Components

1996-04-01
91A105
The trend toward lighter vehicles for improved performance has recently introduced the use of aluminum and plastic materials for vehicle bodies and drive trains. In particular, the aluminum alloy block foar engine application is certain to reappear. The soft aluminum cylinder liner will require additional treatment before acceptance. Three possible approaches appear to solve the aluminum cylinder liner dilemma. These approaches are: 1) use of high silicon aluminum such as the 390 aluminum; 2) insert or cast steel liners into the aluminum engine block; and 3) ceramic coat the low cost standard aluminum engine block. Each has known advantages and disadvantages. It is the purpose of this paper to present the merits of option 3, the ceramic coated aluminum cylinder bore, from the standpoint of low weight, cost, and tribological effectiveness. The advantages of approaches 1) and 2) are obvious. High temperature after treatment of the ceramic engine components is not required.
Technical Paper

TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program

1983-02-01
830314
This paper discusses the goals, progress, and future plans of the TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program. The Adiabatic Engine concept insulates the diesel combustion chamber with high temperature materials to allow hot operation near an adiabatic operation condition. Additional power and improved efficiency derived from this concept occur because thermal energy, normally lost to the cooling and exhaust systems, is converted to useful power through the use of turbomachinery and high-temperature materials. Engine testing has repeatedly demonstrated the Adiabatic Engine to be the most fuel efficient engine in the world with multi-cylinder engine performance levels of 0.285 LB/BHP-HR (48% thermal efficiency) at 450 HP representative. Installation of an early version of the Adiabatic Engine within a military 5 ton truck has been completed, with initial vehicle evaluation successfully accomplished.
Technical Paper

Tribological Investigations for an Insulated Diesel Engine

1983-02-01
830319
A Minimum Cooled Engine (MCE) has been successfully run for 250 hours at rated condition of 298 kW and 1900 rpm. This engine was all metallic without any coolant in the block and lower part of the heads. Ring/liner/lubricant system and thermal loading on the liner at top ring reversal (TRR) as well as on the piston are presented and discussed. Ring/liner wear is given as well as oil consumption and blow-by data during the endurance run. Another engine build with a different top ring coating and several lubricants suggested that a 1500 hours endurance run of MCE is achievable. Rig test data for screening ring materials and synthetic lubricants necessary for a successful operation of a so-called Adiabatic Engine with the ring/ceramic liner (SiN) interface temperature up to 650°C are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Solid Lubrication Studies for Adiabatic Diesel Engines

1985-02-25
850508
A new self lubricating material has been assessed in a laboratory rig simulating high temperature piston rings for adiabatic diesel engines. The material consists of a solid metallic surface containing half millimetre diameter pockets filled with solid lubricant. The friction and wear properties of conventional piston ring surfaces were assessed at 380°C versus a chromium oxide counterface. This was followed by a study of the properties of various solid lubricant formulations which were then evaluated as fillers for surface pockets. The most promising solid lubricated materials contained molybdenum disulphide or lithium fluoride plus copper.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Test of Insulated Components for Rotary Engine

1989-02-01
890326
The two newest internal combustion engine technologies which have demonstrated the most promise in the last 25 years are the direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) rotary engine [1] and the adiabatic diesel engine [2]. The (DISC) engine is particularly attractive for aviation applications [3] because of its light weight, multi-fuel capability and potential for low fuel consumption. However, one disadvantage with the DISC engine is the weight and size of the liquid cooling system. NASA Lewis Research Center has supported a technology enablement program to advance the DISC rotary engine for general aviation applications and recognizes the importance of improvement in fuel consumption and reductions in the coolant system weight [4].
Technical Paper

Performance of Thin Thermal Barrier Coating on Small Aluminum Block Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910461
The cylinder of the aluminum engine block without iron sleeve was coated directly with thin thermal barrier coatings of zirconia and chrome oxide. The cylinder head and valve face and the piston crown were also coated. These three engine components were tested individually and together. The fuel consumption performance of this 84 x 70 mm direct injection diesel engine improved 10% with only coated cylinder bore. When the fuel injection timing of the coated cylinder bore engine was retarded by about 2°CA, emissions characteristics were approximately the same level as for the baseline engine with 8% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption compared with the baseline engine. At constant fuel flow rate to the engine, the exhaust and cylinder head temperatures were higher for the insulated bore case. One can summarize the combustion temperature must have been higher and heat release rates were faster in the insulated case.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Fuel Injection for High Power Density Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1186
High-pressure fuel injection combustion is being applied as an approach to increase the power density of diesel engines. The high-pressure injection enables higher air utilization and thus improved smoke free low air-fuel ratio combustion is obtained. It also greatly increases the injection rate and reduces combustion duration that permits timing retard for lower peak cylinder pressure and improved emissions without a loss in fuel consumption. Optimization of these injection parameters offers increased power density opportunities. The lower air-fuel ratio is also conducive to simpler air-handling and lower pressure ratio turbocharger requirements. This paper includes laboratory data demonstrating a 26 percent increase in power density by optimizing these parameters with injection pressures to 200 mPa.
Technical Paper

Cummins–TARADCOM Adiabatic Turbocompound Engine Program

1981-02-01
810070
This paper describes the progress on the Cummins-TARADCOM adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine development program. An adiabatic diesel engine system adaptable to the use of high performance ceramics which hopefully will enable higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and turbo-charged exhaust energy recovery is presented. The engine operating environments as well as the thermal and mechanical loadings of the critical engine components are covered. Design criteria are presented and techniques leading to its fulfillment are shown. The present shortcomings of the high performance ceramic design in terms of meeting reliability and insulation targets are discussed, and the needs for composite designs are shown. A ceramic design methodology for an insulated engine component is described and some of the test results are shown. Other possible future improvements such as the minimum friction-unlubricated engine through the use of ceramics are also described.
Technical Paper

Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for Engines

1989-02-01
890143
Contrary to the thick thermal barrier coating approach used in adiabatic diesel engines, the authors have investigated the merits of thin coatings. Transient heat transfer analysis indicates that the temperature swings experienced at combustion chamber surfaces depend primarily on material thermophysical properties, i.e., conductivity, density, and specific heat. Thus, cyclic temperature swings should be alike whether thick or thin (less than 0.25 mm) coatings are applied, Furthermore, thin coatings would lead to lower mean component temperatures and would be easier to apply than thick coatings. The thinly-coated engine concept offers several advantages including improved volumetric efficiency, lower cylinder liner wall temperatures, improved piston-liner tribological behavior, and improved erosion-corrosion resistance and thus greater component durability.
Technical Paper

Advancements in High Temperature Cylinder Liner and Piston Ring Tribology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1237
The high temperature tribology issue for uncooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines where the cylinder liner piston ring interface exceeds temperatures of 225°C to 250°C has existed for decades. It is a problem that has persistently prohibited advances in non-watercooled LHR engine development. Though the problem is not specific to non-watercooled LHR diesel engines, it is the topic of this research study for the past two and one half years. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, a tremendous amount of research had been placed upon the development of the LHR diesel engine. LHR engine finite element design and cycle simulation models had been generated. Many of these projected the cylinder liner piston ring top ring reversal (TRR) temperature to exceed 540°C[1]. In order for the LHR diesel to succeed, a tribological solution for these high TRR temperatures had to be developed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Characteristics of the Automotive Diesel

1966-02-01
660550
The production of pollutants and an increasing need for pollution management are an inevitable concomitant of a society with a high standard of living. The automotive diesel engine is used more than any other type of engine for transporting freight over highways. Two kinds of pollution to be considered with regard to the diesel engine are the dark exhaust smoke and odor, of which the public is quite cognizant, and the less obvious but possibly toxic carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and trace compounds of other toxic materials. This paper discusses sampling, measurement techniques, and established standards for exhaust smoke and odor. Examination of diesel exhaust shows it to be less offensive in terms of harmful effects than the invisible exhaust from other types of engines. The major problem is exhaust color and odor.
Technical Paper

Low Heat Rejection From High Output Ceramic Coated Diesel Engine and Its Impact on Future Design

1993-03-01
931021
A high output experimental single cylinder diesel engine that was fully coated and insulated with a ceramic slurry coated combustion chamber was tested at full load and full speed. The cylinder liner and cylinder head mere constructed of 410 Series stainless steel and the top half of the articulated piston and the cylinder head top deck plate were made of titanium. The cylinder liner, head plate and the piston crown were coated with ceramic slurry coating. An adiabaticity of 35 percent was predicted for the insulated engine. The top ring reversal area on the cylinder liner was oil cooled. In spite of the high boost pressure ratio of 4:1, the pressure charged air was not aftercooled. No deterioration in engine volumetric efficiency was noted. At full load (260 psi BMEP) and 2600 rpm, the coolant heat rejection rate of 12 btu/hp.min. was achieved. The original engine build had coolant heat rejection of 18.3 btu/hp-min and exhaust energy heat rejection of 42.3 btu/hp-min at full load.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for I.C. Engines

1995-02-01
950980
This paper investigates theoretically the effects of heat transfer characteristics, such as crank-angle phasing and wall temperature swings, on the thermodynamic efficiency of an IC engine. The objective is to illustrate the fundamental physical basis of applying thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model illustrates how the thermal impedance and thickness of coatings can be manipulated to control heat transfer and limit the high temperatures in engine components. A friction model is also included to estimate the overall improvement in engine efficiency by the proper selection of coating thickness and material.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Blocks

1991-09-01
911719
The trend toward lighter vehicles for improved performance has recently introduced the use of aluminum and plastic materials for vehicle bodies and drive trains. In particular, the aluminum alloy block for engine application is certain to reappear. The soft aluminum cylinder liner will require additional treatment before acceptance. Three possible approaches appear to solve the aluminum cylinder liner dilemma. These approaches are: 1. Use of high silicon aluminum such as the 390 aluminum. 2. Insert or cast steel liners into the aluminum engine block. 3. Ceramic coat the low cost standard aluminum engine block. Each has known advantages and disadvantages. It is the purpose of this paper to present the merits of Option 3, the ceramic coated aluminum cylinder bore from the standpoint of low weight, cost, and tribological effectiveness. The advantages of approaches (1) and (2) are obvious. High temperature after treatment of the ceramic engine components is not required.
Technical Paper

Coatings for Improving Engine Performance

1997-02-24
970204
Thermal barrier coatings are becoming increasingly important in providing thermal insulation for heat engine components. Thermal insulation reduces in-cylinder heat transfer from the engine combustion chamber as well as reducing component structural temperatures. Containment of heat also contributes to increased in-cylinder work and offers higher exhaust temperatures for energy recovery. Lower component structural temperatures will result in greater durability. Advanced ceramic composite coatings also offer the unique properties that can provide reductions in friction and wear. Test results and analysis to evaluate the performance benefits of thin thermal barrier coated components in a single cylinder diesel engine are presented.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Economy of Insulated Engine by Matching the Fuel System

1998-02-23
980885
This paper deals with the analysis of heat release characteristics of an insulated turbocharged, six cylinder, DI contemporary diesel engine. The engine is fully insulated with thin thermal barrier coatings. Effect of insulation on the heat release was experimentally verified. Tests were carried over a range of engine speeds at 100%, 93%, 75% and 50% of rated torque. Fuel injection system was instrumented to obtain injection pressure characteristics. The study shows that rate of heat release, particularly in the major portion of the combustion, is higher for the insulated engine. Improvement in heat release and performance are primarily attributed to reduction in heat transfer loss due to the thin thermal barrier coating. Injection pressure at the rated speed and torque was found to be 138 MPa and there was no degradation of combustion process in the insulated engine. Improvements in BSFC at 93% load are 3.25% and 6% at 1600 and 2600 RPM, respectively.
Technical Paper

Emissions Comparisons of an Insulated Turbocharged Multi-Cylinder Miller Cycle Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980888
The experimental emissions testing of a turbocharged six cylinder Caterpillar 3116 diesel engine converted to the Miller cycle operation was conducted. Delayed intake valve closing times were also investigated. Effects of intake valve closing time, injection time, and insulation of piston, head, and liner on the emission characteristics of the Miller cycle engine were experimentally verified. Superior performance and emission characteristic was achieved with a LHR insulated engine. Therefore, all emission and performance comparisons are made with LHR insulated standard engine with LHR insulated Miller cycle engine. Particularly, NOx, CO2, HC, smoke and BSFC data are obtained for comparison. Effect of increasing the intake boost pressure on emission was also studied. Poor emission characteristics of the Miller cycle engine are shown to improve with increased boost pressure. Performance of the insulated Miller cycle engine shows improvement in BSFC when compared to the base engine.
Technical Paper

Insulated Miller Cycle Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
961050
This paper investigates theoretically the benefits of the Miller cycle diesel engine with and without low heat rejection on thermodynamic efficiency, brake power, and fuel consumption. It further illustrates the effectiveness of thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model which includes a friction model is used to estimate the overall improvement in engine performance. Miller cycle is accomplished by closing the intake valve late and the engine components are coated with PSZ for low heat rejection. A significant improvement in brake power and thermal efficiency are observed.
Technical Paper

Starting Low Compression Ratio Rotary Wankel Diesel Engine

1987-02-01
870449
The single stage rotary Wankel engine is difficult to convert into a diesel version having an adequate compression ratio and a compatible combustion chamber configuration. Past efforts in designing a rotary-type Wankel diesel engine resorted to a two-stage design. Complexity, size, weight, cost and performance penalties were some of the drawbacks of the two-stage Wankel-type diesel designs. This paper presents an approach to a single stage low compression ratio Wankel-type rotary engine. Cold starting of a low compression ratio single stage diesel Wankel becomes the key problem. It was demonstrated that the low compression single stage diesel Wankel type rotary engine can satisfactorily be cold started with a properly designed combustion chamber in the rotor and a variable heat input combustion aid. A 10.5 compression ratio rotary Wankel-type engine was started in 15 secs at −10°C inlet air temperature. High cranking speeds and white smoke were the biggest drawbacks of this design.
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