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Technical Paper

Robust Optimal Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion with Driver-in-the-Loop

Dynamic “Game Theory” brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In previous studies, it was shown that vehicle stability can be represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the vehicle stability controller (VSC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the VSC command is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. This study focus on the uncertainty in the inputs, and more specifically, the driver's steering input.
Technical Paper

Identification of Road Surface Friction for Vehicle Safety Systems

A vehicle's response is predominately defined by the tire characteristics as they constitute the only contact between the vehicle and the road; and the surface friction condition is the primary attribute that determines these characteristics. The friction coefficient is not directly measurable through any sensor attachments in production-line vehicles. Therefore, current chassis control systems make use of various estimation methods to approximate a value. However a significant challenge is that these schemes require a certain level of perturbation (i.e. excitation by means of braking or traction) from the initial conditions to converge to the expected values; which might not be the case all the time during a regular drive.
Technical Paper

Simulation Structure for Heterogeneous Environments

This paper addresses a common issue in producing desktop simulations for production environments in which the most current version of the algorithm is available only in the form of the production code. The part of the system we are interested in is often called performance software (for example, slip control systems, transmission control, and engine control). From a control algorithm design perspective the ideal environment is a reference model in a high level language, which supports code generation. The complete environment would support templatized code generation so that the fixed-point code for the embedded controller can be generated directly. Many organizations have a significant investment in legacy C code, and the cost of remodeling the entire system may be unacceptably high (at least in the short term). In such an environment simulation tools are often underused because of the impression that the entire system must be remodeled.
Journal Article

Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion

Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
Journal Article

A Fuzzy Based Stability Index Using a Right Sigmoid Membership Function

The increasing use and implementation of yaw and roll stability control in heavy trucks has contributed to an increased level of safety for truck drivers and other motorists. It has been shown that the combination of the stability control systems with a predictive model-based stability index can dramatically improve the truck stability and hence road safety. In this respect the authors introduced a new Total Safety Margin (TSM) using a fuzzy logic-based stability index. That methodology utilized a smoothed step and provided acceptable results; however, continuing development has shown that a right sigmoid membership function distribution would provide more complete coverage of the fuzzy space. Compared to the more common triangular membership function which is discontinuous when the membership grade equals one, sigmoid functions facilitate obtaining smooth, continuously differentiable surfaces of a fuzzy model.