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Technical Paper

Analysis of Lining Assembly for Brake System

This paper describes an analytical process for the design of a brake shoe assembly that consists of the linings, shoe table, webs, and rivets. One fundamental performance requirement for the brake shoe assembly is that the linings will not lose clamp force within the desired service life. Key elements of the analytical process involved developing an FEA model with given loading conditions and developing a mathematical model to study the influence parameters of the forces acting on the lining.
Technical Paper

Product Development Support with Integrated Simulation Modeling

The effectiveness of computer simulation modeling for product development support is evidenced by its wide-spread usage. For example, finite element analysis (FEA), has been found indispensable for reducing product development cycle time and cost as well as enhancing product quality. Along with other pertinent information, accurately defined loads are necessary for conducting effective FEA for product design optimizations. FEA results using rough estimated loads often do not provide a good basis for design improvement. A better approach is to define loads through system simulation modeling. The development of such a model involves the synthesis of a wide range of product design knowledge along with a systematic process for model correlation. As the technology becomes matured, there is a strong drive to make the process more efficient by integrating the different types of simulation techniques. Two examples are given in this paper.
Technical Paper

Heavy and Medium Duty Vehicle Suspension-Related Performance Issues and Effective Analytical Models for System Design Guide

The uniqueness and challenge of heavy and medium duty vehicle manufacturing is that the vehicle&s subsystems and major components are procured from different suppliers. As a consequence, engineering task coordination for total vehicle performance optimization is required even if the intended design modification is only on one component. In the case of suspension design, related subsystems such as the drive axle, driveline, brake system, steering system, and engine mounts should all be included for review. The related potential problems for study fall into three categories, namely: function, durability, and NVH. The effective approach in addressing all these issues early in the design stage is through computer modeling and dynamic system simulation of the suspension system and related subsystems.
Technical Paper

A Simple Model for the Simulation of Low-Frequency Disc Brake Noise

A simple ADAMS model was developed for simulating one possible mechanism that causes low-frequency (less than 1 kHz) noise in disc brake assemblies for heavy-duty and medium-duty trucks. The model consists of: truck tire, axle housing, torque plate, caliper, push rods, inner pad, outer pad, and rotor. Only one component (the torque plate) was modeled as a flexible body (using a finite element model), while all other parts are considered as infinitely rigid. A lumped parameter representing the suspension wrap-up stiffness resists the axle pitch motion. When the brakes are not engaged, the system has two distinct modes of vibration, namely, the axle pitch mode which is governed by the suspension wrap-up stiffness, and the caliper transverse (side-to-side) mode, which is governed by the stiffness of the torque plate (out-of-plane deflection of the torque plate) and by the suspension lateral stiffness.
Technical Paper

Improved Drum Brake Shoe Factor Prediction with the Consideration of System Compliance

Effective linear and nonlinear drum brake system FEA (finite element analysis) models have been developed. Such models can help engineers understand many drum brake related issues, such as lining wear and mechanical and thermal instability. The pressure distribution at the drum and lining interface is an important piece of information in drum brake design. Besides the accurate prediction of the shoe factor, the models can be used to guide designs for improving brake efficiency, reducing component weight and enhancing durability. Progress is also being made in developing hybrid models that integrate FEA models with other analysis techniques. This approach offers engineers easy-to-use design tools. The integrated design and analysis approach will help product design and development by reducing cycle time, cost and improving product quality.
Technical Paper

Web-Based Vehicle Performance Simulations Using Microsoft Excel

Although computer models for vehicle and sub-system performance simulations have been developed and used extensively in the past several decades, there is currently a need to enhance the overall availability of these types of tools. Increasing demands on vehicle performance targets have intensified the need to obtain rapid feedback on the effects of vehicle modifications throughout the entire development cycle. At the same time, evolution of the PC and development of Web-based applications have contributed to the availability, accessibility, and user-friendliness of sophisticated computer analysis. Web engineering is an ideal approach in supporting globalization and is a cost-effective design-analysis integration business strategy. There is little doubt that this new approach will have positive impacts on product cost, quality, and development cycle time. This paper will show how Microsoft Excel and the Web can be powerful and effective tools in the development process.
Technical Paper

Improved Drum Brake Performance Prediction Considering Coupled Thermal and Mechanical Effects

This paper presents a methodology for predicting drum brake performance using FEA (finite element analysis) models considering both the mechanical-structural compliance and thermal effects. The methodology for brake torque prediction with FEA models considering the structural flexibility of the brake components alone has been established [1]. The frictional heat generated during braking causes thermoelastic distortion that modifies the contact pressure distribution at the drum-lining interface. In order to capture this thermal effect, a transient thermal analysis is conducted to predict the transient temperature distribution on the brake components. In the thermal analysis, the heat generated at the drum and lining interface is based on the pressure distribution from the compliant mechanical model. Also, the mechanical properties of the brake components as well as the lining friction are dependent on the temperature distribution.
Technical Paper

Predicting Drum Brake Noise Using Finite Element Methods

A method for predicting the propensity of a drum brake system to produce noise is presented. The method utilizes finite element models of the individual components of the drum brake system, which have been assembled into the system model of the brake assembly. An important step in this process is the tuning of the dynamic characteristics of the FEA model to ensure validation with experimental tests. Friction is the key element, which defines the behavior of the drum brake system. The system FEA model is assembled by coupling the lining and drum at the contact interface to simulate the friction interaction. This process produces an asymmetric stiffness matrix. A complex eigenvalue analysis identifies the system dynamic characteristics such as the frequency and damping for each vibration mode. The damping values reveal which modes are unstable and therefore likely to produce noise.