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Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of Multi-component Fuel for Fuel Concentration Measurement by Using Tracer PLIF in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0344
A method to design a feasible multi-component fuel for fuel concentration measurements by using PLIF was developed based on thermal gravity (TG) analysis and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations. Acetone, toluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were respectively chosen as tracers for the light, medium, and heavy components of gasoline. A five-component test fuel was designed for LIF measurement, which contains n -pentane (light), isooctane, n -octane (medium), n -nonane and n -decane (heavy). The TG analysis and VLE calculation were used to ensure that the fuel had volatility similar to real gasoline and that all the tracers had a good coevaporation ratio. The fully optimized results of the six-component fuel and the disadvantages of this case are discussed. The results indicated that optimization based on the six-component fuel, which included C4 compounds such as n -butane, controlled acetone's coevaporation ratio.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1302
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Ignited by Pilot Diesel on Diesel Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0094
Homogeneous charge combustion and emissions of ethanol ignited by pilot diesel fuel were investigated on a two-cylinder diesel engine. The results show that emissions depend on loads and ethanol volume fraction. At low loads, ethanol has little effects on smoke. With the increase of ethanol, NOx decreases, but CO emissions increase. At high loads, smoke emissions reduce greatly with increasing ethanol, but NOx and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase. With the increase of ethanol, ignition delays, combustion duration shortens. The maximum rates of heat release for the fuel containing 10 vol% ethanol (E10) and 30 vol% ethanol (E30) increase. Brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) of E10 and E30 is improved slightly only at full loads. Compared to smoke emissions obtained on the same engine using ethanol blended diesel fuels, the tendency of smoke reduction is similar to that of homogeneous charge combustion of ethanol at the same operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Research on Steady and Transient Performance of an HCCI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

2008-06-23
2008-01-1723
In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Mode Fuelled with Different Mixtures of Gasoline and Diesel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0833
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with mixtures of gasoline and diesel is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the same fuel mass per cycle. By keeping the same intake pressure and EGR ratio, the influence of different blending ratios in gasoline and diesel mixtures (90vol%, 80vol% and 70vol% gasoline) is investigated. Combustion and emission characteristics are compared by sweeping the first (−95 ∼ −35deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−1 ∼ 9deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 80/20 and an injection pressure of 80MPa. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the gasoline and diesel mixtures can reduce NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency, but the HC and CO emissions are high for the mixtures.
Technical Paper

Study of Injection Strategies of Two-stage Gasoline Direct Injection (TSGDI) Combustion System

2005-04-11
2005-01-0107
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines developed at nineties of the twentieth century can greatly improve the fuel economy. But the combustion chamber design and mixture control of the engines are very complex compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline engines. A two-stage gasoline direct injection (TSGDI) combustion system is developed and aimed to solve the problem of the complexity. Two-stage fuel injection and flexible injection timings are adopted as main means to form reasonable stratified mixture in the cylinder. A simple combustion chamber and helical intake port are designed to assist the mixture's stable combustion, which reduces the difficulties of the combustion system design. Systematical simulation and experimental studies of the effects of injection strategies such as different first,second injection timings and injection ratios, on the mixture formation processes and engine performanc are made in detail.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of HCCI Engine With Multi-Stage Gasoline Direct Injection Using 3D-CFD With Detailed Chemistry

2004-03-08
2004-01-0563
In this paper, the detailed chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code to study the combustion process in HCCI engines. An extended hydrocarbon oxidation reaction mechanism (89 species, 413 reactions) used for high octane fuel was constructed and then used to simulate the chemical process of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation in HCCI conditions. The three-dimensional CFD / chemistry model (FIRE/CHEMKIN) was validated using the experimental data from a Rapid Compression Machine. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments. Finally, the improved multi-dimensional CFD code has been employed to simulate the intake, spray, combustion and pollution formation process of the gasoline direct injection HCCI engine with multi-stage injection strategy. The models account for intake flow structure, spray atomization, spray/wall interaction, droplet evaporation and gas phase chemistry in complex multi-dimensional geometries.
Technical Paper

PIV Measurement and Numerical Simulation of Flows in Automotive Catalytic Converters

2001-09-24
2001-01-3494
In this paper a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure flow velocity fields in different inlet cones under different mass flux conditions on a steady state flow rig. Meanwhile, a mathematical model of the flow in catalytic converters was established and simulated using CFD code. Validation of the model shows that simulation results have a good agreement with experiments, which means that the established model is feasible and can be applied to predict the flow characteristics in catalytic converters with different inlet cone configurations. Experimental and computational results indicate that the inlet cone configuration significantly affects flow distribution. For a conventional inlet cone, the cone angle is one of the key factors to affect flow characteristics and should be kept as small as possible in a design. An enhanced inlet cone can greatly improve flow uniformity in catalytic converters.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Performance Analysis of Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition by Diesel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0136
In order to enhance the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines, a combustion mode namely Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) was introduced and examined in this paper. Port-injected gasoline was used as the main fuel and formed a homogeneous charge in the cylinder. Diesel was used as the pilot fuel, directly injected into the cylinder, and self-ignited and this induced the ignition of the premixed gasoline-air charge. The images of HCII combustion process were taken on an optical engine through a high-speed CMOS camera. The multi-point induced ignition phenomena were observed and the parameters like flame luminance, ignition delay and combustion duration were analyzed by image analysis. The result shows that as the gasoline/diesel ratio increases with a fixed low pilot amount, the ignition delay increases, the initial ignition area extends from the center towards the periphery of the combustion chamber, and the combustion velocity increased.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Ignition and Stratified Charge on Gasoline HCCI Combustion With Direct Injection

2005-04-11
2005-01-0137
HCCI combustion was studied in a 4-stroke gasoline engine with a direct injection system. The electronically controlled two-stage gasoline injection and spark ignition system were adopted to control the mixture formation, ignition timing and combustion rate in HCCI engine. The engine could be operated in HCCI combustion mode in a range of load from 1 to 5 bar IMEP and operated in SI combustion mode up to load of 8 bar IMEP. The HCCI combustion characteristics were investigated under different A/F ratios, engine speeds, starts of injection, as well as spark ignition enabled or not. The test results reveal the HCCI combustion features as a high-pressure gradient after ignition and has advantages in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions over SI combustion. At the part load of 1400rpm and IMEP of 3.5bar, ISFC in HCCI mode is 25% lower and NOx emissions is 95% lower than that in SI mode.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency and Low Pollutants Combustion: Gasoline Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0382
A new combustion mode namely multiple premixed compression ignition (MPCI) for gasoline engines was proposed. The MPCI mode can be realized by two or more times gasoline injections into cylinder with a high pressure around the compression TDC and featured with a premixed combustion after each injection in the cylinder, which is different from the existed gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI) modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with gasoline injection occurred in intake stroke, and partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode with multiple gasoline injections in intake and compression strokes before the start of combustion (SOC). Therefore the spray and combustion of the MPCI mode are alternatively occurred as "spray-combustion-spray-combustion" near the TDC, rather than "spray-spray-combustion" sequence as traditional PPCI gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a PPCI Engine Fuelled with Dieseline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1138
In this paper blends of diesel and gasoline (dieseline) fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion and the comparison to conventional diesel combustion is investigated. The tests are carried out using a light duty four cylinder Euro IV diesel engine. The engine condition is maintained at 1800 rpm, 52 Nm (equivalent IMEP around 4.3 bar). Different injection timings and different amounts of EGR are used to achieve the PPCI combustion. The results show that compared to the conventional diesel combustion, the smoke and NOx emissions can be reduced by more than 95% simultaneously with dieseline fuelled PPCI combustion. The particle number total concentration can be reduced by 90% as well as the mean diameter (from 54 nm for conventional diesel to 16 nm for G50 fuelled PPCI). The penalty is a slightly increased noise level and lower indicated efficiency, which is decreased from 40% to 38.5%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter with Exhaust Fuel Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1496
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an effective technology for particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) reduction. On heavy-duty diesel engines, the passive regeneration by Diesel Oxidation catalysts (DOC) and catalyzed DPFs (CDPF) is widely used for its simplicity and low cost, which is generally combined with the active regeneration of exhaust fuel injection. This study investigated a DOC-CDPF system with exhaust fuel injection upstream of the DOC. The system was integrated with a 7-liter diesel engine whose engine-out PM emission was below the Euro IV level and tested on an engine dynamometer. PM and PN concentrations were measured based on the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), and the number/size spectrum for particles was obtained by a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS). The filtration efficiency of DPF on PN was higher than 99% in ESC test, while the efficiency on PM was only 58%.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

2014-04-01
2014-01-1408
Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD.
Technical Paper

Research of the Primary Breakup of a Planar Liquid Sheet Produced by an Air-Blast Atomizer

2014-04-01
2014-01-1430
The primary breakup of a planar liquid sheet produced by an air-blast atomizer was studied through numerical simulations, in order to reveal physical mechanisms involved during this process. The reliability of simulations was verified by comparing the macroscopic parameters, e.g. breakup time and spatial growth rate, with experimental data. Shear instability and RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability were found to play important roles during the primary breakup. By analyzing the acceleration of a fluid parcel within liquid sheet using Discrete Particle Method, and measuring the wave length of transverse unstable wave, RT instability was found to be partially responsible for transverse instability. The predictions of LISA (Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization) model on breakup time were compared to experiments, and obvious differences were found to exist.
Technical Paper

Relative Impact of Chemical and Physical Properties of the Oil-Fuel Droplet on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2278
A conceptual approach to help understand and simulate droplet induced pre-ignition is presented. The complex phenomenon of oil-fuel droplet induced pre-ignition has been decomposed to its elementary processes. This approach helps identify the key fluid properties and engine parameters that affect the pre-ignition phenomenon, and could be used to control LSPI. Based on the conceptual model, a 3D CFD engine simulation has been developed which is able to realistically model all of the elementary processes involved in droplet induced pre-ignition. The simulation was successfully able to predict droplet induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed. The simulation has been able to help explain the observation of pre-ignition advancement relative to injection timing as experimentally observed in a previous study [6].
Journal Article

Impact of Octane Number on Fuel Efficiency of Modern Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2614
Fuel quality, including antiknock rating, plays a critical role in enabling optimal operation of advanced gasoline engines. As new designs introduced into the market implement technologies to improve fuel efficiency, the overall octane level of the gasoline pool may need to be increased to ensure optimal performance. Turbocharging, higher compression ratios and downsized displacement all lead to higher combustion pressures and temperatures that make engines more susceptible to knocking. All modern gasoline engines are equipped with knock sensors that detect abnormal combustion resulting from autoignition caused by insufficient octane quality. The ability of an engine to account for the use of lower octane fuel by retarding spark timing and enriching air-fuel ratio to reduce knock is limited, and engine efficiency is directly and adversely impacted when the use of lower octane gasoline is accommodated, resulting in higher fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Properties from Chinese Market on the Particulate and VOCs Emissions of a PFI and a DIG Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0838
An experimental study of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions was conducted on a direct injection gasoline (DIG) engine and a port fuel injection (PFI) engine which both were produced by Chinese original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to investigate the impact of fuel properties from Chinese market on particulate and VOCs emissions from modern gasoline vehicles. The study in this paper is just the first step of the work which is to investigate the impact of gasoline fuel properties and light duty vehicle technologies on the primary and secondary emissions, which are the sources of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in the atmosphere in China. It is expected through the whole work to provide some suggestions and guidelines on how to improve air quality and mediate severe haze pollution in China through fuel quality control and vehicle technology advances.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Fuel Temperature on Spray Collapse and Mixture Formation Characteristics in GDI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0311
Spray atomization, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation are key factors in affecting the particulate matter (PM) emission in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Current knowledge of wall-wetting phenomenon and mixture formation are mostly based on the studies that the fuel is injected at ordinary temperature and various ambient conditions. In the real GDI engine, the fuel pipe and injector are always heated up by the pump and the engine body, especially at hot engine conditions, thus the fuel temperature is always higher than the ordinary temperature, and the relevant research is still limited. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the spray, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation characteristics under different fuel temperature conditions, so as to provide theoretical support in optimizing the combustion performance and further reducing the PM emission of GDI engines.
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