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Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

PIV Measurement and Numerical Simulation of Flows in Automotive Catalytic Converters

In this paper a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure flow velocity fields in different inlet cones under different mass flux conditions on a steady state flow rig. Meanwhile, a mathematical model of the flow in catalytic converters was established and simulated using CFD code. Validation of the model shows that simulation results have a good agreement with experiments, which means that the established model is feasible and can be applied to predict the flow characteristics in catalytic converters with different inlet cone configurations. Experimental and computational results indicate that the inlet cone configuration significantly affects flow distribution. For a conventional inlet cone, the cone angle is one of the key factors to affect flow characteristics and should be kept as small as possible in a design. An enhanced inlet cone can greatly improve flow uniformity in catalytic converters.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a Spark-ignition Engine Fueled with Coal-Bed Gas - Modeling and Experimental Results

There is a worldwide interest in the research of various alternative fuels for automotive engines for the purpose of reduction of CO2 and toxically harmful exhaust emissions. Coal-bed gas, the main component of which is methane, has been considered an attractive alternative fuel for combustion engines due to its abundant resources, high hydrogen-carbon ratios and very low soot formation tendency. The composition of available coal-bed gas, however, can vary considerably, and this has made its combustion stability difficult to control in conventional spark ignition engines. To overcome the problem, a combustion system with a swirl chamber connected to the main combustion chamber through an orifice has been developed for the use of coal-bed gas in spark ignition engines, and the corresponding combustion process has been studied using a developed combustion model involving flame kernel formation and flame front propagation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Ignition and Stratified Charge on Gasoline HCCI Combustion With Direct Injection

HCCI combustion was studied in a 4-stroke gasoline engine with a direct injection system. The electronically controlled two-stage gasoline injection and spark ignition system were adopted to control the mixture formation, ignition timing and combustion rate in HCCI engine. The engine could be operated in HCCI combustion mode in a range of load from 1 to 5 bar IMEP and operated in SI combustion mode up to load of 8 bar IMEP. The HCCI combustion characteristics were investigated under different A/F ratios, engine speeds, starts of injection, as well as spark ignition enabled or not. The test results reveal the HCCI combustion features as a high-pressure gradient after ignition and has advantages in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions over SI combustion. At the part load of 1400rpm and IMEP of 3.5bar, ISFC in HCCI mode is 25% lower and NOx emissions is 95% lower than that in SI mode.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Temperature on Performance and Emissions of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)

The paper presents analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a common rail diesel engine operating with RME, with and without EGR. In both cases, the RME fuel was pre-heated in a heat exchanger to control its temperature before being pumped to the common rail. The studied parameters include the in-cylinder pressure history, rate of heat release, mass fraction burned, and exhaust emissions. The results show that when the fuel temperature increases and the engine is operated without EGR, the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) decreases, engine efficiency increases and NOx emission slightly decreases. However, when EGR is used while fuel temperature is increased, the bsfc and engine efficiency is independent of fuel temperature while NOx slightly increases.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Dieseline Combustion in a Direct Injection Engine

The differences between modern diesel and gasoline engine configurations are now becoming smaller and smaller, and in fact will be even smaller in the near future. They will all use moderately high compression ratios and complex direct injection strategies. The HCCI combustion mode is likely to lead to the merging of gasoline and diesel engine technologies to handle the challenges they are facing, offering a number of opportunities for the development of the fuels, engine control and after-treatment. The authors' recent experimental research into the HCCI combustion quality of gasoline and diesel blend fuels has referred to the new combustion technology as ‘Dieseline’.
Technical Paper

Research on Steady and Transient Performance of an HCCI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of HCCI Engine With Multi-Stage Gasoline Direct Injection Using 3D-CFD With Detailed Chemistry

In this paper, the detailed chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code to study the combustion process in HCCI engines. An extended hydrocarbon oxidation reaction mechanism (89 species, 413 reactions) used for high octane fuel was constructed and then used to simulate the chemical process of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation in HCCI conditions. The three-dimensional CFD / chemistry model (FIRE/CHEMKIN) was validated using the experimental data from a Rapid Compression Machine. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments. Finally, the improved multi-dimensional CFD code has been employed to simulate the intake, spray, combustion and pollution formation process of the gasoline direct injection HCCI engine with multi-stage injection strategy. The models account for intake flow structure, spray atomization, spray/wall interaction, droplet evaporation and gas phase chemistry in complex multi-dimensional geometries.
Technical Paper

Modelling Study of Combustion and Gas Exchange in a HCCI (CAI) Engine

The main obstacle for the development of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is the control of auto-ignition timing, and one key is to control the trapped gas temperature so as to enable the autoignition at the end of compression stroke. Using special valve mechanisms, very high residual gas mass fraction can be achieved to raise the charge temperature. Gas exchange process hence plays a crucial role in such HCCI engines because of its strong interaction with combustion. The modification of the gas exchange process in a 4-stroke automotive engine for HCCI combustion is not straightforward, since the engine must be able to operate across a considerably wide range of speeds and loads. Intake air temperatures and the valve mechanism need to be controlled in order to deliver optimal engine performance and fuel economy. This paper presents a modelling study of the combustion and gas exchange in a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of inlet valve timing on boosted gasoline HCCI with residual gas trapping

With boosted HCCI operation on gasoline using residual gas trapping, the amount of residuals was found to be of importance in determining the boundaries of stable combustion at various boost pressures. This paper represents a development of this approach by concentrating on the effects of inlet valve events on the parameters of boosted HCCI combustion with residual gas trapping. It was found that an optimum inlet valve timing could be found in order to minimize NOx emissions. When the valve timing is significantly advanced or retarded away from this optimum, NOx emissions increase due to the richer air / fuel ratios required for stable combustion. These richer conditions are necessary as a result of either the trapped residual gases becoming cooled in early backflow or because of lowering of the effective compression ratio. The paper also examines the feasibility of using inlet valve timing as a method of controlling the combustion phasing for boosted HCCI with residual gas trapping.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow with Negative Valve Overlapping - Characterised by PIV Measurement

Negative valve overlapping is widely used for trapping residual burned gas within the cylinder to enable controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). HCCI has been shown as a promising combustion technology to improve the fuel economy and NOx emissions of gasoline engines. While the importance of in-cylinder flow in the fuel and air mixing process is recognised, the characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. This paper presents an investigation in an optical engine designed for HCCI combustion using EGR trapping. PIV techniques have been used to measure the in-cylinder flow field under motored conditions and a quantitative analysis has been carried out for the flow characterisation with comparison made against the flow in the same engine with conventional valve strategies for SI combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Applying boosting to gasoline HCCI operation with residual gas trapping

The application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to naturally aspirated engines has shown a much reduced usable load range as compared to spark ignition (SI) engines. The approach documented here applies inlet charge boosting to gasoline HCCI operation on an engine configuration that is typical for SI gasoline engines, in conjunction with residual gas trapping. The latter helps to retain the benefits of much reduced requirement for external heating. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the level of boost pressure while varying the amount of trapped residual gas. In addition, it was found that there is a maximum amount of boost that can be applied without intake heating for any given amount of trapped residuals. NOx emissions decrease with increasing amounts of trapped residual.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Effect of the Pre-Chamber Orifice Geometry on Ignition and Flame Propagation with a Natural Gas Spark Plug

Natural gas is one of the promising alternative fuels due to the low cost, worldwide availability, high knock resistance and low carbon content. Ignition quality is a key factor influencing the combustion performance in natural gas engines. In this study, the effect of pre-chamber geometry on the ignition process and flame propagation was studied under varied initial mixture temperatures and equivalence ratios. The pre-chambers with orifices in different shapes (circular and slit) were investigated. Schlieren method was adopted to acquire the flame propagation. The results show that under the same cross-section area, the slit pre-chamber can accelerate the flame propagation in the early stages. In the most of the cases, the penetration length of the flame jet and flame area development are higher in the early stages of combustion.
Technical Paper

PLII-LEM and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Soot Formation in Spray Combustion of PODEn-Diesel Blend Fuels in a Constant Volume Vessel

Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Promotive Effect of Diesel Fuel on Gasoline HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap (NVO)

It is well-known that gasoline is a poor fuel for HCCI operation due to its high autoignation temperature, while the major problem for diesel HCCI is that the ignition temperature of diesel fuel is too low so that diesel autoignites too early. Interestingly a blend of gasoline and diesel fuel could have desirable characteristics for HCCI operation. The negative valve overlap (NVO) is a practical and feasible control mode for production applications of the HCCI concept. At present, the most serious problem is the difficulty to control the moment of auto-ignition and extend the limited operating window of smooth HCCI operation. In this paper, the promotive effects of diesel fuel on gasoline HCCI combustion were experimentally examined. The diesel fuel as additive was added in advance in different proportion (10% and 20% by mass) into gasoline for the purpose of improving its ignitability. The experiments conducted on a gasoline HCCI engine which was naturally aspirated and unthrottled.
Technical Paper

Phenomenology of EGR in a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Used Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester (UVOME) and Their Blends

HVO contains paraffin only and UVOME is methyl ester with long chain alkyl while mineral diesel is complex compound and contains lots of aromatic and Naphthenic. This paper compares the effects of EGR on the two different types of biodiesels blends compared to diesel. The combustion performance and emissions of biodiesel blends of UVOME and HVO were investigated in a turbocharged direct injection V6 diesel engine with EGR swept from 0% to the calibration setting for diesel. The EGR sweep tests with increment of 5% were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 RPM for the load of between 72 Nm to 143 Nm, using sulfur-free diesel blended with UVOME and HVO at 30% and 60% by volume respectively. As the EGR rate was increased, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for each fuel was reduced at lower load but increased at higher load. The BSFC of mineral diesel was lower than UVOME blends and similar to the HVO blends.