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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Medium Duty DME Truck Performance -Field Test Results and PM Characteristics-

2007-01-23
2007-01-0032
The performance of a medium duty DME truck was evaluated by field tests and engine bench tests. The DME vehicle was given a public license plate on October 2004, after which running tests were continued on public roads and a test course. The DME vehicle could run the whole distance, about 500 km, without refueling. The average diesel equivalent fuel consumption of the fully loaded DME truck was 5.75 km/l, running at 80 km/h on public highways. Remedying several malfunctions that occurred in the power-train subsystems enhanced the vehicle performance and operation. The DME vehicle accumulated 13,000 km as of August, 2006 with no observed durability trouble of the fuel injection pump. Disassembly and inspection of the fuel injectors after 7,700 km operation revealed a few differences in the nozzle tip and the needle compared to diesel fuel operation. However, the injectors were used again after cleanup.
Technical Paper

A Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Diesel Vehicle Fueled with GTL

2007-01-23
2007-01-0028
In this study, diesel exhaust emission characteristics were investigated as GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel was applied to a heavy-duty diesel truck which had been developed to match a Japanese new long-term exhaust emission regulation (NOx < 2.0 g/kWh, PM < 0.027 g/kWh). The results in this study show that although the test vehicle has advanced technologies (e.g. high pressure fuel injection, oxidation catalyst, and urea-SCR aftertreatment system, etc.) which are applied to reduce diesel emissions, the neat GTL fuel has a great advantage to reduce particulate matter emissions and poly aromatic hydrocarbons. And regarding nano-size PM emissions, nuclei mode particles emitted during idling are significantly decreased by using the GTL fuel.
Technical Paper

Studies of Fuel Properties and Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Fuel

2007-01-23
2007-01-0073
Biodiesel fuel has attracted much attention as a carbon neutral fuel because it is made from vegetable oil. Especially in Southeast Asia, there are numerous biofuel resources, such as palm oil and coconut oil, and it is desirable to utilize these for CO2 reduction. In this paper, we evaluate the properties of biodiesel fuel and biodiesel blended diesel oil. The low temperature performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poor and it affects low temperature performance, even if the PME blending rate is low. The oxidation stability is a very important property of biodiesel fuel because degraded biodiesel fuel produces organic acids and polymeric substances. PME contains mainly saturated fatty acids methyl esters, so the oxidation stability is better than other fats and oils. When containing antioxidants such as beta carotene, biodiesel's oxidation stability is improved.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

2007-04-16
2007-01-0629
It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions Characteristics of an LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0869
In this study, performance and emissions characteristics of an LPG direct injection (DI) engine with a rotary distributor pump were examined by using cetane enhanced LPG fuel developed for diesel engines. Results showed that stable engine operation was possible for a wide range of engine loads. Also, engine output power with cetane enhanced LPG was comparable to diesel fuel operation. Exhaust emissions measurements showed NOx and smoke could be reduced with the cetane enhanced LPG fuel. Experimental model vehicle with an in-line plunger pump has received its license plate in June 2000 and started high-speed tests on a test course. It has already been operated more than 15,000 km without any major failure. Another, experimental model vehicle with a rotary distributor pump was developed and received its license plate to operate on public roads.
Technical Paper

Spray and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of a Biodiesel Engine Operating with the Blend of Plant Oil and DME

2002-03-04
2002-01-0864
As an effective method to solve the global warming and the energy crisis, the research has been carried out for the adaptability of plant oil as an alternative fuel for Diesel engine. But there are the problems of engine performance and exhaust emissions owing to the high viscosity and low volatility, when the plant oil is used as a fuel. In order to eliminate these problems, spray characteristics of the DME (Dimethyl ether) blended plant oil has been examined by using the image processing based on the shadowgraph methodology. Results show that the optimum mixing ratio of the blend is about 50:50 (by weight %). Thereafter, experiments have been conducted with a DI Diesel engine using the DME blended plant oil, and compared the exhaust emissions with Diesel, DME and transesterified fuel operation. From the results, it can be concluded that the combustion characteristics of DME blended plant oil are comparable to Diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Process of a DI CI Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether

2001-09-24
2001-01-3504
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is one of the major candidates for the next generation fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It has good self-ignitability and would not produce particulate, even at rich conditions. DME has proved to be able to apply to ordinary diesel engines with minimal modifications, but its combustion characteristics are not completely understood. In this study, the behavior of a DME spray and combustion process of a direct injection CI engine fueled with DME was investigated by combustion observation and in-cylinder gas sampling. To distinguish evaporated and non-evaporated zones of a spray, direct and schlieren imaging were carried out. The sampled gas from a DME spray was analyzed by gas chromatography, and the major intermediate product histories during ignition period were analyzed.
Technical Paper

KIVA Simulation for Mixture Formation Processes in an In-Cylinder Injected LPG SI Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2805
This is a preliminary work for the development of a stratified combustion engine using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) as an alternative fuel. The main objective of this research is to find out the optimizing engine parameters from the viewpoint of mixture formation with the aid of simulation, where the KIVA_ code was used. The combustion characteristics of LPG and gasoline are different because of their different physical properties. Therefore, the numerical simulation was performed for optimizing engine parameters by changing the piston and cylinder geometry, as well as injection conditions. Result showed that geometry of combustion chamber has a great influence on mixture stratification. Also, weaker swirl seems to be better for mixture formation in the vicinity of the spark plug.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Autoignition in a DME Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1827
The ignition delay under various temperature and pressure conditions considering volumetric change is investigated both by experiments and simulation to give some basic data of ignition delay for a DME DI diesel engine. The combustion process in a DME direct injected diesel engine was also observed to help understanding of the difference between DME combustion and that of a diesel fuel. For DME fuel, it was clear that the luminous flame duration is much shorter than that of diesel fuel. The calculated results of ignition delay for high equivalence(ϕ =0.4 in this study) showed good accord qualitatively to those of measured at wide range of temperature and pressure conditions investigated in this work. There exists the negative temperature coefficient region near the temperature of 800K. This study shows basic guideline for optimal injection timing for DME fueled compression ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Trace Levels of Harmful Substances Emitted from a DME DI Diesel Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2202
In this report, trace levels of harmful substances, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, SO2, benzene and so on, emitted from a DME fueled direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine were measured using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission analyzer. Results showed that the NO portion of NOx emissions with DME exceeded diesel fuel operation levels. DME fueling caused greater amounts of water than with diesel fuel operation. DME fueling was also associated with higher formaldehyde emissions than with diesel fuel operation. However, using an oxidation catalyst, formaldehyde could be decreased to a negligible level.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a Medium Duty DME Truck

2005-05-11
2005-01-2194
Dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting notable attention as a clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. The authors developed a medium duty DME truck, and investigated aspects of vehicle performance such as engine power, exhaust characteristics, fuel consumption, noise, in-vehicle systems, and so on. Results indicated that higher engine torque and power could be achieved with DME compared to diesel fuel operation of the base engine at any engine speed. Results also showed that emissions decreased dramatically, to 27% for NOx, 74% for HC, 95% for CO and 94% for PM (Particulate Matter) compared to maximum allowed Japanese 2003 emission regulations. The operating noise of the DME vehicle was slightly lower than the base vehicle with diesel fuel, because the combustion noise with DME was decreased compared to with diesel fuel operation. The DME vehicle was given a public license plate in October 2004, after which running test continued on public roads and on a test course.
Technical Paper

Methodology of Lubricity Evaluation for DME Fuel based on HFRR

2011-11-08
2011-32-0651
The methodology of lubricity evaluation for DME fuel was established by special modified HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) such as Multi-Pressure/Temperature HFRR (MPT-HFRR). The obtained results were summarized as follows: The HFRR method is adaptable with DME fuel. There is no effect of the test pressure (up to 1.8 MPa) and the test temperature (up to 100°C) of MPT-HFRR on wear scar diameter. The results with MPT-HFRR can be applied at the sliding parts of the injection needle and the fuel supply pump's plungers which are secured lubricity by the boundary lubrication mode mainly and the mixed lubrication mode partially. Using the fatty-acid-based lubricity improver in amounts of approximately 100 ppm, the lubricity of DME, which has a lack of self-lubricity, is ensured as same as the diesel fuel equivalent level. There is a big deviation of measured wear scar diameter when the LI concentration is not enough.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion in the DME Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0089
For better understanding of the combustion characteristics in a direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine, the chemiluminescences of a burner flame and in-cylinder flame were analyzed using the spectroscopic method. The emission intensities of chemiluminescences were measured by a photomultiplier after passing through a monochrome-spectrometer. For the burner flame, line spectra were found nearby the wave length of 310 nm, 430 nm and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2 radicals, respectively. For the in-cylinder flame, a strong continuous spectrum was found from 340 nm wave length to 550 nm. Line spectra were also detected nearby 310 nm, 395 nm and 430 nm, arising from OH, HCHO, and C2 radicals, respectively, partially overlapping with the continuous spectrum. Of these line spectra, 310 nm of OH radical did not overlapped with the continuous spectrum.
Technical Paper

Fuel Characteristics Evaluation of GTL for DI Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0088
In this study, advantages of GTL fueled DI diesel engine were observed, then, some cautionary areas, notably the aptitude for sealing materials, were investigated. Some advantages of using GTL as a diesel engine fuel include reduction of soot emission levels, power output and fuel consumption with GTL to conventional diesel fuel operation is equivalent, super-low sulfur content of GTL and its liquid state at normal temperature and pressure. However, there are some problems with putting GTL fuel on the market, such as lubricity, aptitude for sealing materials, high cetane index and high pour point. It is necessary to use additives to improve GTL's lubricity, and selecting the most appropriate type of lubricity improver is also important. The influence of GTL on the swelling properties of standard rubber materials seem basically the same, but it is necessary to notice on used rubbers.
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Liquefied Gas Assessment of Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (MPT-HFRR) -DME Fuel for Diesel

2004-06-08
2004-01-1865
In this study, a MPT-HFRR (Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) was manufactured based on a diesel fuel lubricity test apparatus. The MPT-HFRR was designed to be used for conventional test methods as well as for liquefied gas fuel tests. Lubricity tests performed on a calibration standard sample under both atmospheric pressure and high pressure produced essentially constant values, so it was determined that this apparatus could be used for assessing the lubricity of fuel. Using this apparatus, the improvement of lubricity due to the addition of a DME (Dimethyl Ether) fuel additive was investigated. It was found that when 50ppm or more of a fatty acid lubricity improver was added, the wear scar diameter converged to 400μm or less, and a value close to the measured result for Diesel fuel was obtained. The lubricity obtained was considered to be generally satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of DME Diesel Engine With Inline Injection Pump Developed for DME

2004-06-08
2004-01-1863
The engine performance and exhaust characteristics of the DME-powered diesel engine with an injection system developed for DME were investigated. The injection pump is an inline type that can inject double amount of DME fuel compared to the base injection pump because the calorific value of DME is about half lower than that of diesel fuel. The effect of injection timing on engine performances such as thermal efficiency, engine torque, and exhaust characteristics were investigated. Maximum torque and power with DME could be achieved the same or greater level compared to diesel fuel operation. Considering over all engine performances, the best dynamic injection timings without EGR were -3, -3, -6 and -9 deg. ATDC in 1120, 1680, 2240 and 2800 rpm engine speeds respectively in this experiment.
Technical Paper

Development of LPG SI and CI Engines for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0166
Development of LPG SI and CI engines for heavy duty vehicles has been carried out. In order to measure the performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn SI engine, the piston cavity, swirl ratio, and propane-butane fuel ratio were varied and tested. Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A feasibility study of an LPG DI diesel engine also has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the selected cetane enhancing additives:Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP). When more than 5 wt% DTBP was added to the base fuel, stable engine operation over a wide range of engine loads was possible. The thermal efficiency of LPG fueled operation was found to be comparable to diesel fuel operation at DTBP levels over 5 wt%.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of DME Blended Biodiesel Oil

2001-09-24
2001-01-3636
Spray characteristics of biodiesel oil was investigated as it can be applied to industrial combustion systems, including internal combustion engines. Shadowgraph methodology using Greenfield system was used to take some images of the spray and to measure droplet size. A high speed video camera was also used to take a picture of spray penetration and its angle. From the results, it shows that DME blended biodiesel oil has almost the same droplet size as conventional diesel oil, when the blended DME ratio is over 50% by weight. It is also shown that there exists optimum fuel injection pressure that has minimum droplet size when the ambient gas pressure is constant.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine Operated with LPG and Ignition Improving Additives

2001-09-24
2001-01-3680
This research investigated the performance and emissions of a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine operated on 100% butane liquid petroleum gas (LPG). The LPG has a low cetane number, therefore di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) were added to the LPG (100% butane) to enhance cetane number. With the cetane improver, stable Diesel engine operation over a wide range of the engine loads was possible. By changing the concentration of DTBP and AHC several different LPG blended fuels were obtained. In-cylinder visualization was also used in this research to check the combustion behavior. LPG and only AHC blended fuel showed NOX emission increased compared to Diesel fuel operation. Experimental result showed that the thermal efficiency of LPG powered Diesel engine was comparable to Diesel fuel operation. Exhaust emissions measurements showed that NOX and smoke could be considerably reduced with the blend of LPG, DTBP and AHC.
Technical Paper

Fuel and System Interaction Effects on Urea-SCR Control of NOx in Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2006-04-03
2006-01-0638
This work considers the performance of a NOx control system on a diesel engine and the interaction between the NOx and particulate control devices. A commercial urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst (twin catalytic reactors used in series) was characterized for the impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the ammonia consumption, production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and relative selectivity of the urea-SCR catalyst for NO2 versus NO when the SCR reactors were positioned downstream of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The aqueous urea solution was injected into the exhaust by using a twin fluid, air-assisted atomizer. It was possible to observe the role of NO2 due to the catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) upstream of the SCR catalyst. This catalyzed DPF oxidizes nitric oxide (NO) in the engine-out emissions to NO2. Further, it uses NO2 to oxidize particulate matter (PM).
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