Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0832
For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Technical Paper

Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for NOx Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen

2016-09-27
2016-01-8082
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Spray Flame under Diesel Engine Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1844
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model has been used extensively for diesel engine simulations due to its computational efficiency and is expected to remain the workhorse computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for industry in the near future. Alternatively, large eddy simulations (LES) can potentially deal with complex flows and cover a large disparity of turbulence length scales, which makes this technique more and more attractive in the engine community. An n-dodecane spray flame (Spray A from Engine Combustion Network) was simulated using a dynamic structure LES model to understand the transient behavior of this turbulent flame. The liquid spray was treated with a traditional Lagrangian method and the gas-phase reaction was closed using a delta probability density function (PDF) combustion model. A 103-species skeletal mechanism was used for n-dodecane chemical kinetic model.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Cavitation-Suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

2019-09-09
2019-24-0126
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected injector performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline (SRG) has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

2015-04-14
2015-01-0931
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0870
This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Prediction of the Nozzle Flow and Jet Characteristics at Start and End of Injection: Transient Behaviors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1850
This paper reports investigations on diesel jet transients, accounting for internal nozzle flow and needle motion. The calculations are performed with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model by coupling the internal and external multiphase flows simultaneously. Short and multiple injection strategies are commonly used in internal combustion engines. Their features are significantly different from those generally found in steady state conditions, which have been extensively studied in the past, however, these conditions are seldom reached in modern engines. Recent researches have shown that residual gas can be ingested in the injector sac after the end-of-injection (EOI) and undesired dribbles can be produced. Moreover, a new injection event behaves differently at the start-of-injection (SOI) depending on the sac initial condition, and the initial spray development can be affected for the first few tens of μs.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Acting Piezoelectric Prototype Injector Nozzle Flow for Partial Needle Lifts

2017-09-04
2017-24-0101
Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.
Technical Paper

Global Sensitivity Analysis of a Diesel Engine Simulation with Multi-Target Functions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1117
Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is conducted for a diesel engine simulation to understand the sensitivities of various modeling constants and boundary conditions in a global manner with regards to multi-target functions such as liquid length, ignition delays, combustion phasing, and emissions. The traditional local sensitivity analysis approach, which involves sequential perturbation of model constants, does not provide a complete picture since all the parameters can be uncertain. However, this approach has been studied extensively and is advantageous from a computational point of view. The GSA simultaneously incorporates the uncertainty information for all the relevant boundary conditions, modeling constants, and other simulation parameters. A global analysis is particularly useful to address the important parameters in a model where the response of the targets to the values of the variables is highly non-linear.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Standardization of Numerical Approaches for the Prediction of Non-reacting and Reacting Diesel Sprays

2012-04-16
2012-01-1263
The primary objective of the research discussed here was to compare the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, CONVERGE, and a prevalent open-source code, OpenFOAM, with regard to their ability to predict spray and combustion characteristics. The high-fidelity data were obtained from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) at Sandia National Laboratory in a constant-volume combustion vessel under well-defined, controlled conditions. The experiments and simulations were performed by using two diesel surrogate fuels (i.e., n-heptane and n-dodecane) under both non-reacting and reacting conditions. Specifically, ECN data on spray penetration, liquid length, vapor penetration, mixture fraction, ignition delay, and flame lift-off length (LOL) were used to validate both codes. Results indicate that both codes can predict the above experimental characteristics very well.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heat Loss through Pistons and Effect of Thermal Boundary Coatings in Diesel Engine Simulations using a Conjugate Heat Transfer Model

2016-10-17
2016-01-2235
Heat loss through wall boundaries play a dominant role in the overall performance and efficiency of internal combustion engines. Typical engine simulations use constant temperature wall boundary conditions [1, 2, 3]. These boundary conditions cannot be estimated accurately from experiments due to the complexities involved with engine combustion. As a result, they introduce a large uncertainty in engine simulations and serve as a tuning parameter. Modeling the process of heat transfer through the solid walls in an unsteady engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation can lead to the development of higher fidelity engine models. These models can be used to study the impact of heat loss on engine efficiency and explore new design methodologies that can reduce heat losses. In this work, a single cylinder diesel engine is modeled along with the solid piston coupled to the fluid domain.
Technical Paper

LES Analysis on Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion Process in a DISI Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0006
Combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of Spark-Ignition (SI) engines can be influenced by the cyclic variations in charge motion, trapped mass and mixture composition inside the cylinder. A high CCV leads to misfire or knock, limiting the engine’s operating regime. To understand the mechanism of the effect of flow field and mixture compositions on CCV, the present numerical work was performed in a single cylinder Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engine. A large eddy simulation (LES) approach coupled with the G-equation combustion model was developed to capture the CCV by accurately resolving the turbulent flow field spatially and temporally. Further, the ignition process was modeled by sourcing energy during the breakdown and arc phases with a line-shape ignition model which could move with the local flow. Detailed chemistry was solved both inside and outside the flame front. A compact 48-species 152-reactions primary reference fuel (PRF) reduced mechanism was used.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0303
Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines (ICEs) arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Technical Paper

Comparison of In-Nozzle Flow Characteristics of Naphtha and N-Dodecane Fuels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0853
It is well known that in-nozzle flow behavior can significantly influence the near-nozzle spray formation and mixing that in turn affect engine performance and emissions. This in-nozzle flow behavior can, in turn, be significantly influenced by fuel properties. The goal of this study is to characterize the behavior of two different fuels, namely, a straight-run naphtha that has an anti-knock index of 58 (denoted as “Full-Range Naphtha”) and n-dodecane, in a simulated multi-hole common-rail diesel fuel injector. Simulations were carried out using a fully compressible multi-phase flow representation based on the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Our previous studies have shown that the characteristics of internal and near-nozzle flow are strongly related to needle motion in both the along- and off-axis directions.
Technical Paper

Global Sensitivity Analysis of a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine Simulation with Multiple Targets on an IBM Blue Gene/Q Supercomputer

2016-04-05
2016-01-0602
In internal combustion engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, uncertainties arise from various sources, such as estimates of model parameters, experimental boundary conditions, estimates of chemical kinetic rates, etc. These uncertainties propagate through the model and may result in discrepancies compared to experimental measurements. The relative importance of the various sources of uncertainty can be quantified by performing a sensitivity analysis. In this work, global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was applied to engine CFD simulations of a low-temperature combustion concept called gasoline compression ignition, to understand the influence of experimental measurement uncertainties from various sources on specific targets of interest-spray penetration, ignition timing, combustion phasing, combustion duration, and emissions. The sensitivity of these targets was evaluated with respect to imposed uncertainties in experimental boundary conditions and fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0585
The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Combustion Model Selection for Split Injection Spray Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0374
A wide variety of spray models and their associated sub-models exist to assist with numerical spray development studies in the many applicable areas viz., turbines, internal combustion engines etc. The accuracy of a simulation when compared to the experiments varies, as these models chosen are varied. Also, the computational grid plays a crucial role in model correctness; a grid-converged CFD study is more valuable and assists in proper validation at later stages. Of primary relevance to this paper are the combustion models for a grid-converged Lagrangian spray modeling scenario. CONVERGE CFD code is used for simulation of split injection diesel (n-heptane) sprays and a structured methodology, using RNG k-ε turbulence model, is followed to obtain a grid-converged solution for the key Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) parameters viz., grid size, injected parcels and spray break-up time constant.
Technical Paper

Using a DNS Framework to Test a Splashed Mass Sub-Model for Lagrangian Spray Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0297
Numerical modeling of fuel injection in internal combustion engines in a Lagrangian framework requires the use of a spray-wall interaction sub-model to correctly assess the effects associated with spray impingement. The spray impingement dynamics may influence the air-fuel mixing and result in increased hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. One component of a spray-wall interaction model is the splashed mass fraction, i.e. the amount of mass that is ejected upon impingement. Many existing models are based on relatively large droplets (mm size), while diesel and gasoline sprays are expected to be of micron size before splashing under high pressure conditions. It is challenging to experimentally distinguish pre- from post-impinged spray droplets, leading to difficulty in model validation.
X