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Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation into the Effects of Intake Valves Events on Airflow Characteristics in a Motored 4-Valve Engine Cylinder with Negative Valve Overlapping

2007-09-16
2007-24-0032
This paper presents a computational study of the airflow features within a motored 4-valve direct injection engine cylinder. An unconventional intake valve strategy was investigated; whereby each valve on the pair of intake valves was assumed to be actuated with different lifts and duration. One of the intake valves was assumed to follow a high-lift long duration valve-lift profile while the other was assumed to follow a low-lift short duration valve-lift profile. The pair of exhaust valves was assumed to be actuated with two identical low-lift short duration valve-lift profiles in order to generate the so-called negative valve overlapping (NVO). The in-cylinder flow fields developed with such intake valve strategy were compared to those produced in the same engine cylinder but with the application of identical low-lift short duration intake valve events.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a Spark-ignition Engine Fueled with Coal-Bed Gas - Modeling and Experimental Results

2005-10-24
2005-01-3804
There is a worldwide interest in the research of various alternative fuels for automotive engines for the purpose of reduction of CO2 and toxically harmful exhaust emissions. Coal-bed gas, the main component of which is methane, has been considered an attractive alternative fuel for combustion engines due to its abundant resources, high hydrogen-carbon ratios and very low soot formation tendency. The composition of available coal-bed gas, however, can vary considerably, and this has made its combustion stability difficult to control in conventional spark ignition engines. To overcome the problem, a combustion system with a swirl chamber connected to the main combustion chamber through an orifice has been developed for the use of coal-bed gas in spark ignition engines, and the corresponding combustion process has been studied using a developed combustion model involving flame kernel formation and flame front propagation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Operating Mode Transitions of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using EGR Trapping

2004-06-08
2004-01-1911
While Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising combustion mode with significant advantages in fuel economy improvement and emission reductions for vehicle engines, it is subject to a number of limitations, for example, hardware and control complexity, or NOx and NVH deterioration near its operating upper load boundary, diminishing its advantages. Conventional spark-ignition combustion mode is required for higher loads and speeds, thus the operating conditions near the HCCI boundaries and their corresponding alternatives in SI mode must be studied carefully in order to identify practical strategies to minimise the impact of the combustion mode transition on the performance of the engine. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI, using a combination of an engine cycle simulation code with a chemical kinetics based HCCI combustion code.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

A 1D Analysis into the Effect of Variable Valve Timing on HCCI Engine Parameters

2008-10-06
2008-01-2459
The effects of variable intake-valve-timing on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve direct-injection HCCI engine were computationally investigated using a 1D gas dynamics engine cycle simulation code. A non-typical strategy to actuate the pair of intake valves was examined; whereby each valve was assumed to be actuated independently at different timing. Using such an intake valves strategy, the obtained results showed a considerable improvement of the engine parameters such as load and charging efficiency as compared with the typical identical intake valve pair timings case. Additional benefits of minimizing pumping losses and improving the fuel economy were demonstrated with the use of the non-simultaneous actuation of the intake valve pair having the opening timing of the early intake valve coupled with a symmetric degree of crank angle for the timing of exhaust valve closing.
Technical Paper

Modelling Study of Combustion and Gas Exchange in a HCCI (CAI) Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0114
The main obstacle for the development of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is the control of auto-ignition timing, and one key is to control the trapped gas temperature so as to enable the autoignition at the end of compression stroke. Using special valve mechanisms, very high residual gas mass fraction can be achieved to raise the charge temperature. Gas exchange process hence plays a crucial role in such HCCI engines because of its strong interaction with combustion. The modification of the gas exchange process in a 4-stroke automotive engine for HCCI combustion is not straightforward, since the engine must be able to operate across a considerably wide range of speeds and loads. Intake air temperatures and the valve mechanism need to be controlled in order to deliver optimal engine performance and fuel economy. This paper presents a modelling study of the combustion and gas exchange in a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of inlet valve timing on boosted gasoline HCCI with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2136
With boosted HCCI operation on gasoline using residual gas trapping, the amount of residuals was found to be of importance in determining the boundaries of stable combustion at various boost pressures. This paper represents a development of this approach by concentrating on the effects of inlet valve events on the parameters of boosted HCCI combustion with residual gas trapping. It was found that an optimum inlet valve timing could be found in order to minimize NOx emissions. When the valve timing is significantly advanced or retarded away from this optimum, NOx emissions increase due to the richer air / fuel ratios required for stable combustion. These richer conditions are necessary as a result of either the trapped residual gases becoming cooled in early backflow or because of lowering of the effective compression ratio. The paper also examines the feasibility of using inlet valve timing as a method of controlling the combustion phasing for boosted HCCI with residual gas trapping.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow with Negative Valve Overlapping - Characterised by PIV Measurement

2005-05-11
2005-01-2131
Negative valve overlapping is widely used for trapping residual burned gas within the cylinder to enable controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). HCCI has been shown as a promising combustion technology to improve the fuel economy and NOx emissions of gasoline engines. While the importance of in-cylinder flow in the fuel and air mixing process is recognised, the characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. This paper presents an investigation in an optical engine designed for HCCI combustion using EGR trapping. PIV techniques have been used to measure the in-cylinder flow field under motored conditions and a quantitative analysis has been carried out for the flow characterisation with comparison made against the flow in the same engine with conventional valve strategies for SI combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2129
The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

2005-05-11
2005-01-2085
Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Control of A/F Ratio During Engine Transients

1999-05-03
1999-01-1484
Variations in air-fuel ratio within a 16-valve port-injection spark-ignition engine have been examined as a consequence of rapid transients in load at constant speed with fuel injection controlled by the production engine-management system and by a custom-built controller. The purpose was to minimize excursions from stoichiometry by the use of a controller to impose an injection strategy, guided by results obtained with the production management system. The strategy involves a model that takes account of manifold filling and the delays in transport of fuel from the injectors to the cylinder. The results show that the excursions in air-fuel ratio from stoichiometry were reduced from more than 25% to 6%.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Fuel Temperature on Spray Collapse and Mixture Formation Characteristics in GDI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0311
Spray atomization, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation are key factors in affecting the particulate matter (PM) emission in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Current knowledge of wall-wetting phenomenon and mixture formation are mostly based on the studies that the fuel is injected at ordinary temperature and various ambient conditions. In the real GDI engine, the fuel pipe and injector are always heated up by the pump and the engine body, especially at hot engine conditions, thus the fuel temperature is always higher than the ordinary temperature, and the relevant research is still limited. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the spray, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation characteristics under different fuel temperature conditions, so as to provide theoretical support in optimizing the combustion performance and further reducing the PM emission of GDI engines.
Journal Article

Spray Characteristics Study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer

2010-05-05
2010-01-1505
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. In this paper, the spray characteristics of DMF and its blends with gasoline were studied from a high pressure direct injection gasoline injector using the shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques, This includes the spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of the various mixtures. In parallel commercial gasoline and ethanol were measured in order to compare the characteristics of DMF. A total of 52 points were measured along the spray so that the experimental results could be used for subsequent numerical modeling. In summary, the experimental results showed that DMF and its blends have similar spray properties to gasoline, compared to ethanol. The droplet size of DMF is generally smaller than ethanol and decreases faster with the increase of injection pressure.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

2010-05-05
2010-01-1556
In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of GDI Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Characteristics

2015-09-01
2015-01-1906
The large eddy simulation (LES) with Volume of Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method in Ansys-FLUENT has been used to study the effects of nozzle hole geometrical parameters on gasoline direct injection (GDI) fuel injectors, namely the effect of inner hole length/diameter (L/D) ratio and counter-bore diameters on near field spray characteristics. Using iso-octane as a model fuel at the fuel injection pressure of 200 bar, the results showed that the L/D ratio variation of the inner hole has a more significant influence on the spray characteristics than the counter-bore diameter variation. Reducing the L/D ratio effectively increases the mass flow rate, velocity, spray angle and reduces the droplet size and breakup length. The increased spray angle results in wall impingements inside the counter-bore cavity, particularly for L/D=1 which can potentially lead to increased deposit accumulation inside fuel injectors.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1302
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Optical Study on Combustion of DMF and DMF Fuel Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1235
The bio-fuel, 2,5 - dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. However, little is known about the flame behavior in an optical engine. In this paper, high speed imaging (with intensifier) was used during the combustion of DMF and its blends with gasoline and ethanol (D50, D85, E50D50 and E85D15) in an SI optical engine. The flame images from the combustion of each fuel were analyzed at two engine loads: 3bar and 4bar IMEP. For DMF, D50 and E50D50, two modes were compared: DI and PFI. The average flame shapes (in 2D) and the average flame speeds were calculated and combined with mass fraction burned (MFB) data. The results show that when using DMF, the rate of flame growth development and flame speed is higher than when using gasoline. The differences in flame speed between DMF and gasoline is about 10% to 14% at low IMEP.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Low-Level 2-Methylfuran Content in Gasoline on DISI Engine Combustion Behavior and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1317
Research studies show that 2-methylfuran (MF) is a promising gasoline alternative regarding its positive effect on engine performance and emissions. Before using pure MF in spark ignition engines, it is more likely to be used in a low-level blended form in gasoline. An experimental research study was carried out to investigate the impacts of low-level MF content in gasoline (volumetric 10% MF in blend) on direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine combustion behavior and emissions. The tests were conducted on a single-cylinder spray-guided DISI research engine at an engine speed of 1500 rpm under stoichiometric conditions. The engine loads of 3.5 ~ 8.5 bar IMEP were tested and gasoline-optimized spark timing was used. Furthermore, the effects of spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and valve overlap on NOx emissions were tested.
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