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Journal Article

Side Crash Pressure Sensor Prediction for Unitized Vehicles: An ALE Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-0657
With a goal to help develop pressure sensor calibration and deployment algorithms using computer simulations, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach was adopted in this research to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors for unitized vehicles. For occupant protection, acceleration-based crash sensors have been used in the automotive industry to deploy restraint devices when vehicle crashes occur. With improvements in the crash sensor technology, pressure sensors that detect pressure changes in door cavities have been developed recently for vehicle crash safety applications. Instead of using acceleration (or deceleration) in the acceleration-based crash sensors, the pressure sensors utilize pressure change in a door structure to determine the deployment of restraint devices. The crash pulses recorded by the acceleration-based crash sensors usually exhibit high frequency and noisy responses.
Journal Article

Side Crash Pressure Sensor Prediction for Body-on-Frame Vehicles: An ALE Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-0666
In an attempt to assist pressure sensor algorithm and calibration development using computer simulations, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach was adopted in this study to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors for body-on-frame vehicles. Acceleration based, also called G-based, crash sensors have been used extensively to deploy restraint devices, such as airbags, curtain airbags, seatbelt pre-tensioners, and inflatable seatbelts, in vehicle crashes. With advancements in crash sensor technologies, pressure sensors that measure pressure changes in vehicle side doors have been developed recently and their applications in vehicle crash safety are increasing. The pressure sensors are able to detect and record the dynamic pressure change when the volume of a vehicle door changes as a result of a crash.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

2011-04-12
2011-01-0001
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Spot Weld Connections In Crash Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0691
Spot welding is the primary joining method used for the construction of the automotive body structure made of steel. A major challenge in the crash simulation today is the lack of a simple yet reliable modeling approach to characterize spot weld separation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation in crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to characterize the spot weld nugget. To represent the connection of the nugget with the surrounding plates, tied contacts are defined between the spring element nodes and the shell elements of the plate. Three general separation criteria are proposed for the spot weld that include the effects of speed and coupled loading conditions. The separation criteria are implemented into a commercially available explicit finite element code.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body on Frame Vehicles, Part 1 - Subsystem Investigation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0688
For a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle, the frame is the major structural subsystem to absorb the impact energy in a frontal vehicle impact. It is also a major contributor to energy absorption in rear impact events as well. Thus, the accuracy of the finite element frame model has significant influence on the quality of the BOF vehicle impact predictability. This study presents the latest development of the frame modeling methodology on the simulation of BOF vehicle impact performance. The development is divided into subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). This paper presents the first phase, subsystem testing and modeling, of the frame modeling development. Based on the major deformation modes in frontal impact, the frame is cut into several sections and put on the sled to conduct various tests. The success of the sled test highly depends on whether the sled results can replicate the deformation modes in the full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Impact Testing of Bushings for Crashworthiness Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0317
The dynamic response of a front lower control arm (LCA) is very important in crash safety. In the event of a crash, the deformation of the LCA affects the frame rail's ability to crush and absorb energy on impact. Therefore, the deformation and rupture of the LCA during a crash may indirectly influence the deceleration pulse which is needed for safety sensor calibration of airbag deployment [1]. Depending on compliance, bushings have a significant effect on the deformation and rupture of the LCA. During a high speed impact test, the bushings allow the LCA to rotate at the joints or points where the LCA connects to the frame. The development of new LCA and bushing designs, constructed of different materials and geometries, require a standard test to measure their performance. The overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized procedure to test the stiffness, deformation, and strength of LCA bushings.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Vehicle Pitch and Drop

2006-04-03
2006-01-0316
The optimization method and CAE analysis have been widely used in structure design for crash safety. Combining the CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle structure design for crash can be implemented more efficiently. One of the recent safety desirables in structure design is to reduce vehicle pitch and drop. At frontal impact tests with unbelted occupants, the interaction between occupant's head and interior header/sun visor, which is caused by excessive vehicle pitch and drop, is not desired in vehicle crash development. In order to comply with the federal frontal crash requirements for unbelted occupant, it is necessary to manage the vehicle pitch and drop by improving structure design. In this paper, a systematic process of CAE analysis with optimization approach is applied for discovering the major structural components affecting vehicle pitch and drop.
Technical Paper

Impact Simulation of Hydro-formed Front End Vehicle Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0312
The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the hydro-forming process and the effect of strain rate on crash performance and develop a modeling approach to improve the accuracy of crash prediction. Work hardening, thinning and strain rate effects are investigated in both component and full vehicle analyses to understand their sensitivities. Gages measured and material properties tested from post-formed tubes are compared with hydro-forming simulation results to confirm accuracy of the modeling methodology proposed in the paper. Front crash simulation using strain rate and forming effects are correlated with the test data for both component and full vehicle analyses and conclusion has been drawn from this comparison.
Technical Paper

Modeling Energy Absorption and Deformation of Multicorner Columns in Lateral Bending

2006-04-03
2006-01-0123
The frame rail has an impact on the crash performance of body-on-frame (BOF) and uni-body vehicles. Recent developments in materials and forming technology have prompted research into improving the energy absorption and deformation mode of the frame rail design. It is worthwhile from a timing and cost standpoint to predict the behavior of the front rail in a crash situation through finite element techniques. This study focuses on improving the correlation of the frame component Finite Element model to physical test data through sensitivity analysis. The first part of the study concentrated on predicting and improving the performance of the front rail in a frontal crash [1]. However, frame rails in an offset crash or side crash undergo a large amount of bending. This paper discusses appropriate modeling and testing procedures for front rails in a bending situation.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spot Weld under Impact Loading and Its Effect on Crash Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0959
Spot weld is the primary joining method to assemble the automotive body structure. In any crash events some separation of spot-welds can be expected. However, if this happens in critical areas of the vehicle it can potentially affect the integrity of the structure. It will be beneficial to identify such issues through CAE simulation before prototypes are built and tested. This paper reports a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation and its application in full vehicle crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to model the spot weld. Separation of spot welds is modeled using three alternative rupture criteria defined in terms of peak force, displacement and energy. Component level crash tests are conducted using VIA sled at various impact speeds to determine mean crush load and identify possible separation of welds.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Compatibility Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-1055
An accurate and robust target vehicle model was developed for vehicle compatibility applications. Although vehicle compatibility simulation involves a bullet vehicle hitting a target vehicle, the focus of this paper is to develop a target vehicle model. To ensure the robustness, the target vehicle model needs to provide reasonable responses under different impact conditions. This can be achieved by calibrating the model against different physical tests. Significant effort was taken to improve the accuracy of the target vehicle model. In the calibration process, some components were found to have significant effects on the global responses. These components play different roles in different crash modes. To improve the overall correlation with test, different component tests were also designed and conducted to understand the characteristics and improve the modeling of these critical components.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model For Vehicle-To-Vehicle Simulations: Part II Vehicle-To-Vehicle Impactsy

2002-03-04
2002-01-0248
The objective of this study is to verify the performance of a target vehicle model in vehicle-to-vehicle impact applications. In some vehicle-to-vehicle tests, the target vehicle stays the same and the bullet vehicle changes from test to test depending on the programs under evaluation. To obtain reasonable crash pulse predictions in vehicle-to-vehicle impacts, it was decided to develop an accurate and robust target vehicle model first. The development of the target vehicle model was divided into two phases, rigid barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle impacts. Twelve rigid barrier tests, including full rigid barriers, angular rigid barriers, offset rigid barriers, and fixed rigid poles were adopted in the first phase of the study to calibrate the target vehicle model. The results of the study have been reported [1]. This paper focuses on the verification of vehicle-to-vehicle impacts.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0355
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Technical Paper

Impact Testing of Lower Control Arm for Crashworthiness Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0352
The conversion between cast aluminum lower control arms (LCAs) and stamped steel LCAs has prompted the need for new LCA designs to achieve parallel levels of performance. Component tests procedures and CAE modeling methodologies need to be utilized to assess future LCA designs across a variety of vehicle lines to meet or exceed performance criteria. Therefore the overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized test procedure to test the stiffness, deformation and strength of LCAs. In addition, CAE modeling methodologies to better model LCAs will be developed. The test procedures and CAE modeling methodologies would then be used to set performance targets for future LCA designs. To standardize the LCA test procedure, component test fixtures were developed in this work. The objective of the fixtures is to test LCAs with similar boundary conditions they would experience in vehicle crash. Three different test modes are examined in this project.
Technical Paper

Data Processing For CAE Material Input With Strain Rate Effects

2005-04-11
2005-01-0359
Strain rate effects have been identified as one of the most critical factors for the modeling of vehicle components in many previous investigations. The strain rate data available to the authors have been processed to obtain the input decks of a required material law in prior investigations. With the application of strain rate modeling, the strain rate database needs to be expanded. In order to continuously improve the safety CAE quality and efficiency, especially the prediction of a vehicle's pulse in a crash event, the effort has been made to include more strain rate data and extend the material database for safety CAE applications. In this study, strain rate data provided by Ispat Inland Inc. for AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program are processed. The material processed in this study include HSS590-CR, 440W-GA, BH300-GI, HSLA350-GI, DP600-HR, TRIP590-EG, TRIP600-CR, TRIP780-CR.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body-On-Frame Vehicles: Part II - Full Vehicle Crash

2004-03-08
2004-01-0689
This study focuses on the modeling of a frame in a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle to improve the prediction of vehicle response in crashes. The study is divided into three phases - component (frame material modeling), subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). In the component level, we investigate the available strain rate data, the performance of various material models in crash codes and the effect of the strain rate in crash simulation. In the subsystem phase, we incorporate the strain rate modeling and expand the scope to include both the forming and the welding effects in the subsystem CAE model to improve the correlation between CAE and test. Finally the improved frame modeling methodology with strain rate, forming and welding effects is adopted in full vehicle model. It is found that the proposed frame modeling methodology is crucial to improve the pulse prediction of a full vehicle in crashes.
Technical Paper

Determination of Spot Weld Modeling Parameters from Test Data for Finite Element Crash Simulation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0692
The authors have proposed a new formulation to characterize the mechanical properties of spot welds under dynamic loadings including separation. In this paper, the authors primarily discuss a systematic procedure to determine the parameters of the proposed spot weld model from test data using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach and statistical analyses. All analysis pertaining to the spot weld modeling under impact loading has been performed using RADIOSS, a commercially available explicit FE crash solver. In this study, the spot weld connection was modeled using a two-node beam-type spring element with 6 DOF at each node, and the sheet metal was modeled using a four-node shell element. The main objective was to develop a spot weld modeling methodology that is accurate and robust enough to be used in a full vehicle model which is composed of hundreds of different parts and will be crashed under different test conditions.
Technical Paper

Methodology On The Testing Of The Automobile Mount Dynamic Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-0474
This paper reports the latest development of methodologies for testing and CAE modeling of the automobile mounts. The objective of this study is to provide dynamic mount properties for product evaluation and CAE modeling guideline for crashworthiness simulations. The methodology is divided into component, subsystem and full system levels. The study at the component level is to extract the dynamic parameters of mounts, such as stiffness and damping coefficient, based on the component tests. Furthermore, such parameters are employed to investigate the interaction between mount and connecting structures at the subsystem level. A robust connection mechanism from mount to surrounding structures is also developed during this process. Finally, the results from full vehicle system tests are compared with the CAE simulations to verify the methodology at the component and subsystem levels. A robust component test methodology is the first key element of this study.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Simulations: Part I Rigid Barrier Impacts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0246
The objective of this study is to develop a target vehicle model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact applications. In order to provide reasonable predictions for crash pulses in vehicle-to-vehicle impacts, an accurate and robust target vehicle model was developed first. An ideal target vehicle model should be able to provide reasonable results when hit by different bullet vehicles at different impact speeds and under different impact conditions. This was achieved by calibrating the target vehicle model against different vehicle crash tests, which include full rigid barriers, angular rigid barriers, offset rigid barriers, and fixed rigid poles. Twelve rigid barrier tests were adopted in this study to calibrate the target vehicle model. During the calibration process, some of the vehicle structures were examined and remodeled carefully for their properties and mesh quality.
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