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Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Minimally Processed Methanol in a Diesel Engine Without Ignition Assist

1994-03-01
940326
Mixtures of methanol, water and heavier alcohols, simulating “raw’ methanol at various levels of processing, were tested in a constant volume combustion apparatus (CVCA) and in a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine. The ignition characteristics determined in the CVCA indicated that the heavier alcohols have beneficial effects on the auto-ignition quality of the fuels, as compared to pure methanol. Water, at up up to 10 percent by volume, has little effect on the ignition quality. In all cases, however, the cetane numbers of the alcohol mixtures were very low. The same fuels were tested in a single cylinder engine, set-up in a configuration similar to current two-valve DI engines, except that the compression ratio was increased to 19:1. Pure methanol and five different blends of alcohols and water were tested in the engine at five different speed-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Control of Diesel Exhaust Emissions in Underground Coal Mines - Steady-State and Transient Engine Tests with a Five Percent Water-in-Fuel Microemulsion

1983-02-01
830555
This paper is the fourth in a series describing work sponsored by the Bureau of Mines to reduce diesel particulate and gaseous emissions through fuel modification. A stabilized water microemulsion fuel developed in previous work was tested in a Caterpillar 3304 NA four-cylinder engine with compression ratio and injection timing and rate optimized for this fuel to demonstrate the emissions reductions achieved. It was tested in both standard and optimum configurations with both baseline DF-2 and optimized microemulsion fuels. Gaseous and particulate data are presented from steady-state tests using a computer-operated mini-dilution tunnel and from transient tests using a total exhaust dilution tunnel. The optimized engine-fuel combination was effective in reducing particulates and oxides of nitrogen in steady-state tests. However, the standard engine-fuel combination provided the lowest particulate and NOx emissions in transient tests.
Technical Paper

Control of Diesel Exhaust Emissions in Underground Coal Mines - Single-Cylinder Engine Optimization for Water-in-Fuel Miscroemulsions

1983-02-01
830553
The increased use of diesel-powered equipment in underground mines has prompted interest in reducing their exhaust pollutants. Control of particulate emissions without substantial penalties in other emissions or fuel consumption is necessary. This paper describes test results on a prechaaber, naturally-aspirated, four-cycle diesel engine in which two different concentrations of water-in-fuel emulsions were run. The independent variables comprising the test matrix were fuel, speed, load, injection timing, injection rate, and compression ratio. The dependent variables of the experiment included particulate and gaseous emissions and engine thermal efficiency. Regression analysis was performed on the data to determine how particulate emissions were affected by fuel and engine parameters. Results of this analysis indicated that substantial reductions in particulate emissions could be obtained by utilizing water-in-fuel emulsions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine and Fuel Parameters on Diesel Exhaust Emissions during Discrete Transients in Speed and Load

1985-02-01
850110
Diesel exhaust emission levels have been measured during discrete transients in speed and load, and with changes made to the engine and fuel. Particulate, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide measurements were made for two fuels, DF2 and 5 percent water-in-fuel microemulsion, for both a standard Caterpillar 3304 and a modified 3304 engine. Engine modifications included increasing compression ratio and retarding injection timing. This paper examines the effects of the water addition and engine modification on the steady-state and transient emission levels. In general, the addition of water decreased the particulate and oxides of nitrogen emission levels for the standard engine, but increased the levels of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. For the modified engine, the water addition resulted in a slight decrease in oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter at high speed and load conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Discrete Transients in Speed and Load on Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

1985-02-01
850109
The responses of diesel engine exhaust emissions to transients in speed and torque are examined. Particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were sampled for discrete segments of various transient cycles. Each cycle consisted of four distinct segments, two of which were steady state, in general, each segment was defined by choosing the beginning and ending values for speed and torque, and the segment length. Using regression techniques, prediction equations were obtained for each emission. The equations relate the emission levels to engine parameters, which describe each segment. Speed and torque were found to be important variables as were the rates at which speed and torque changed. Transients in torque were found to increase particulate and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Understanding the mechanism of Cylinder Bore and Ring Wear in Methanol Fueled SI Engines

1986-10-01
861591
One of the major problems created by the use of methanol fuels in SI engines is the high cylinder bore and ring wear rates observed during operation at low engine temperatures. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to identify the processes controlling the corrosion/wear mechanism in methanol-fueled, spark-ignition engines. Basically, three different types of experiments were performed during this project. The experiments consisted of: 1. Combustion experiments designed to identify the combustion products of methanol at various locations within a confined methanol flame; 2. Exposure studies designed to define the specific role of each of the combustion products on the corrosion mechanism; 3. Lubricant screening experiments designed to identify the mode of penetration of the oil film, and the location, in the microscale, of the surface attack. Performic acid was identified as the corrosive agent.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay as Determined in a Variable-Compression Ratio Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1987-11-01
872036
A variable-compression ratio, direct-injection diesel engine (VCR) has been designed and assembled at Southwest Research Institute with the intention of examining the current procedures for rating the ignition quality of diesel fuels and the meaning of ignition delay as an indicator of ignition and combustion quality. Using a slightly modified ASTM D 613 procedure, the engine has been used to rate the ignition quality of 43 different test fuels. The ratings obtained in the VCR engine are compared to the corresponding rating obtained using the standard cetane rating procedure. Some of the problems associated with the standard procedure became apparent during these experiments. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the problems and the advantages of a proposed VCR-based rating procedure.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Predicted and Measured Diesel Exhaust Emission Levels During Transient Operation

1987-11-01
872140
A technique is verified for mapping the exhaust emission levels of a diesel engine during transient operation. Particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide emissions were sampled for discrete segments of various transient cycles. Each cycle consisted of four distinct segments. The discrete segments are described by average engine conditions, rate of change variables, and segment length. Regression analysis was used to develop equations relating the emission levels during each segment to the engine parameters. The regression equations were then used to obtain estimates of composite emission levels of several complex transient cycles that were subsequently tested. These cycles included the EPA heavy-duty transient cycle and two simulated heavy-duty cycles developed for underground mine vehicles. Comparison of the predicted and measured cycle emissions are made for the EPA heavy duty cycle and the simulated mine cycles.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0054
This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

Vegetable Oils as Alternative Diesel Fuels: Degradation of Pure Triglycerides During the Precombustion Phase in a Reactor Simulating a Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920194
Vegetable oils are candidates for alternative fuels in diesel engines. These oils, such as soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, cottonseed, and peanut, consist of various triglycerides. The chemistry of the degradation of vegetable oils when used as alternate diesel fuels thus corresponds to that of triglycerides. To study the chemistry occurring during the precombustion phase of a vegetable oil injected into a diesel engine, a reactor simulating a diesel engine was constructed. Pure triglycerides were injected into the reactor in order to determine differences in the precombustion behavior of the various triglycerides. The reactor allowed motion pictures to be prepared of the injection event as the important reaction parameters, such as pressure, temperature, and atmosphere were varied. Furthermore, samples of the degradation products of precombusted triglycerides were collected and analyzed (gas chromatography / mass spectrometry).
Technical Paper

Emissions Measurements in a Steady Combusting Spray Simulating the Diesel Combustion Chamber

1992-02-01
920185
In-cylinder control of particulate emissions in a diesel engine depends on careful control and understanding of the fuel injection and air/fuel mixing process. It is extremely difficult to measure physical parameters of the injection and mixing process in an operating engine, but it is possible to simulate some diesel combustion chamber conditions in a steady flow configuration whose characteristics can be more easily probed. This program created a steady flow environment in which air-flow and injection sprays were characterized under non-combusting conditions, and emissions measurements were made under combusting conditions. A limited test matrix was completed in which the following observations were made. Grid-generated air turbulence decreased particulates, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, while CO2 and NOx levels were increased. The turbulence accelerated combustion, resulting in more complete combustion and higher temperatures at the measurement location.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Composition Effects on Ignition and Emissions

1993-10-01
932735
Four broad boiling range materials, representative of current and future feedstocks for diesel fuel, were processed to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then distilled into six to eight fractions each. The resulting 63 fuels were then characterized physically and chemically, and tested in both a constant volume combustion apparatus and a single cylinder diesel engine. The data obtained from these analyses and tests have been analyzed graphically and statistically. The results of the initial statistical analysis, reported here, indicate that the ignition quality of a fuel is dependent not only on the overall aromatic content, but also on the composition of the material formed during hydroprocessing of the aromatics. The NOx emissions, however, are related mainly to the aromatic content of the fuel, and the structure of the aromatic material.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties and Composition on the Temperature Dependent Autoignition of Diesel Fuel Fractions

1992-10-01
922229
The work described in this paper includes the preparation and combustion testing of fuels that consist of fractions of several different distillate materials that represent different feed stocks and different processing technology. Each of the fuels have been tested in a constant volume combustion apparatus to determine the relationship between ignition delay time, temperature and cetane number. These relationships are discussed in terms of the composition and properties of each fraction, and the processing that each of the feedstocks were exposed to.
Technical Paper

Cetane Numbers of Fatty Esters, Fatty Alcohols and Triglycerides Determined in a Constant Volume Combustion Bomb

1990-02-01
900343
During the 1980's, vegetable oils, microemulsions containing fatty alcohols as surfactants, and fatty esters have been extensively investigaed as alternative fuels to #2 diesel fuel (DF-2) used in farm tractors. Despite the importance of vegetable oils (mainly triglycerides) and fatty derivatives to the alternative fuel program, cetane numbers for pure triglycerides and many fatty derivatives were not reported. In the current study, estimated cetane numbers of these materials have been determined by use of a constant volume combustion bomb. Prior research has shown that this equipment can produce cetane numbers that correlate satisfactorily with engine cetane numbers as determied by ASTM D 613. The influence of chemical structure on ignition delay and cetane number was investigated. Evidence is presented that shows the current cetane number scale is not always suitable for these fatty materials. Suggestions are made as to what might be done to remedy this problem.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine for Improved Fuel Efficiency and Ultra-Low NOx Emissions at Low to Moderate Engine Loads

2001-05-07
2001-01-1897
A new combustion concept has been developed and tested for improving the low to moderate load efficiency and NOx emissions of natural gas engines. This concept involves operation of a dual-fuel natural gas engine on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) in the load regime of idle up to 35 % of the peak torque. A dual-fuel approach is used to control the combustion phasing of the engine during HCCI operation, and conventional spark-ignited natural gas combustion is used for the high-load regime. This concept has resulted in an engine with power output and high-load fuel efficiency that are unchanged from the base engine, but with a 10 - 15 % improvement to the low to moderate load fuel efficiency. In addition, the engine-out NOx emissions during HCCI operation are over 90% lower than on spark-ignited natural gas operation over the equivalent load range.
Technical Paper

The Use of Hybrid Fuel in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1980-10-01
801380
Hybrids are fuels derived from combinations of different energy sources and which are generally formulated as solutions, emulsions, or slurries. The underlying objective of this program is to reduce the use of petroleum-derived fuels and/or to minimize the processing requirements of the finished hybrid fuels. Several hybrid fuel formulations have been developed and tested in a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine. The formulations included solutions of ethanol and vegetable oils in diesel fuel, emulsions of methanol and of ethanol in diesel fuel; and slurries of starch, cellulose, and “carbon” in diesel fuel. Based on the progress to date, the solutions and emulsions appear to be viable diesel engine fuels if the economic factors are favorable and the storage and handling problems are not too severe. The slurries, on the other hand, are not to the same point of development as the solutions and emulsions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties and Composition on Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions - A Review

1981-09-01
810953
Due to the cost and mobility advantages of diesel-powered mine vehicles over electric vehicles, it is anticipated that the diesel engine will become more widely used in underground mines in this country. Concern has arisen, however, over the impact of diesel exhaust emissions on the air quality in the underground mine environment. A literature search has been conducted to identify known effects of fuel properties on the reduction of diesel exhaust emissions. Reductions can be obtained by optimizing fuel properties and by considering alternative fuels to standard diesel fuel. However, the data base is relatively small and the results highly dependent on engine type and operating conditions. Engine studies on a typical mine diesel are necessary to draw quantitative conclusions regarding the reduction of emissions, especially particulates and NO2 which have not been generally addressed in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Partial Pre-Mixed Combustion with Cooled and Uncooled EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0963
An experimental investigation of the effects of partial premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and EGR temperature was conducted on a Caterpillar C-12 heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE). The addition of EGR and PCCI combustion resulted in significant NOx reductions over the AVL 8-mode test. The lowest weighted BSNOx achieved was 2.55 g/kW-hr (1.90 g/hp-hr) using cooled EGR and 20% port fuel injection (PFI). This represents a 54% reduction compared to the stock engine. BSHC and BSCO emissions increased by a factor of 8 and 10, respectively, compared to the stock engine. BSFC also increased by 7.7%. In general, BSHC, BSCO, BSPM, and BSFC increased linearly with the amount of port-injected fuel.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
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