In-Cylinder Oxygen Mass Fraction Estimation Method for Minimizing Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations
Recent developments in advanced combustion engines have demonstrated the potential increases in efficiency and reductions in emissions through low temperature combustion (LTC). These combustion modes often rely on high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), early fuel injection systems, and in some cases a combination of fuels with different reactivities. Despite the advantages of LTC, such operations are highly sensitive to the in-cylinder pre-combustion conditions and face significant challenges in multi-cylinder operation due to cylinder-to-cylinder variations of the combustion process. The cause of cylinder-to-cylinder variations is strongly tied to non-uniform trapped mass. In particular, in-cylinder oxygen concentration plays a critical role in the combustion process of each cylinder and can be leveraged to predict combustion characteristics and to develop control algorithms that mitigate cylinder-to-cylinder variation.