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Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Corrosion Rate of Zn Coated Steel Sheets for Automotive Body Use

The corrosion mechanism of zinc coated steel sheets in automotive bodies was studied in field vehicle tests and several types of accelerated tests. Perforation corrosion starts in unpainted areas of lapped parts, and proceeds in the following steps: i) galvanic protection by the Zn coating, ii) protection by corrosion products, and iii) corrosion of the steel substrate and perforation. Although the corrosion processes were the same in all the cases tested, the corrosion rate depended significantly on the environment, such as atmospheric exposure conditions and the part of the automotive body. In accelerated corrosion environments, Zn coating is largely ineffective against perforation corrosion because galvanic protection and protection by corrosion products cannot be maintained over the long term.
Technical Paper

Development of Laser-Textured Dull Steel Sheets with Superior Press Formability

Surface roughness of steel sheet for automotive use is one of the most important control items, because the surface roughness influences image clarity of painted surface, press formability and easiness in handling during manufacturing and processing of steel sheets. Laser texturing technology is introduced into a roll finishing process of cold rolling, and new type of regular surface roughness profile can be processed on the surface of steel sheets. Effective application method of this technology is investigated at the present day. In Japan, Laser-textured dull steel sheets are used for outer-panels of automotive body as the first application. And image clarity after painting of outer panels has been successful in improving. Nowadays, Laser texturing technology is actually used for manufacturing the high image clarity steel sheets, and they are manufactured in large quantities. Another application of Laser texturing technology is for the inner parts which require pressformability.
Technical Paper

Spot Weldability and Fatigue Property of Hot-Rolled High-Strength Sheet Steels for Wheel Usage

Spot weldabilities and fatigue properties of hot-rolled high strength sheet steels for wheel use, with tensile strength of 45 to 60 kgf/mm2 were investigated. The specimens used were phosphorus-niobium bearing steel (P-Nb steel), phosphorus-manganese bearing steel (P-Mn steel) and conventional carbon-manganese bearing steel (C-Mn steel). The P-Nb steel and the P-Mn steel have been developed by the authors for wheel rim use and wheel disc use, respectively. The P-Nb steel showed higher static strengths in welded joints compared with other steels, which is important for steels used for rims. Fatigue strengths of spot welded joints were compared using fracture mechanics. It is confirmed that application of fracture mechanics is a powerful method to assess fatigue strength of various types of spot welded joints. High fatigue strength after strain-aging is required for steels used for wheel disc use.
Technical Paper

Properties of Formable High Strength Sheet Steels for Automotive Use

Metallurgical factors affecting the press formability of the newly developed high strength sheet steels have been discussed. Dual phase steels, CHLY(cold-rolled sheet steel) and HTP-D(as-hot-rolled sheet steel), produced by control of cooling conditions after intercritical annealing or hot-rolling exhibit very low yield to tensile strength ratio and high n-value. Rephosphorized extra-low carbon steel, CHRX, produced by continuous annealing with rapid cooling is characterized by its extremely high r-value and low yield strength. CHLY, HTP-D and CHRX have large bake hardenability. Precipitation hardened steel, HTP-F(hot-rolled sheel steel), produced by adjusting carbon equivalent and sulfur content is suitable for manufacturing wheel rims owing to its good formability after flash butt welding.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Steel Sheets for Wheel Rim Use

Three types of hot-rolled high strength steel sheets having tensile strengths of 600 to 800MPa for wheel rim use were developed. For a fundamental study the effects of chemical compositions on the formability in stretch-flanging and bending on the flash butt welded joints were investigated. In precipitation-hardened steels, the main controlling factors are identified as a newly proposed carbon equivalent value, Mn/Si ratio and S content in steel. P-bearing steels and intercritically heat-treated dual-phase steel hoops are able to be used for rim production. Examples of commercial production of rims are presented.
Technical Paper

Fatigue of Automotive High Strength Steel Sheets and Their Welded Joints

Fatigue properties in various types of high strength steel sheets for automotive use and their spot and arc welded joints were investigated. In steel sheets and strain-aged sheets, fatigue limit stresses and notch sensitivities depend on not only the tensile strength but also the yield strength. Two methods for improving fatigue strength of spot welded high strength steel joints were found. One is to generate moderate expulsion during welding with a current just above the upper lobe curve and another is to conduct a controlled tempering treatment during the welding schedule. By these methods, fatigue strengths at 107 cycles of spot welded high strength steel joints increase by about twice as compared with those by the conventional welding method.
Technical Paper

Phosphorus-Added, Hot-Rolled, High-Strength Sheet Steel with Low Yield-to-Tensile Strength Ratio

A new hot rolled high strength sheet steel has been developed by utilizing controlled cooling technique after hot rolling to a 0.05wt%C-1.5wt%Mn-0.08wt%P steel. Phosphorus enhances ferrite transformation at higher temperature, which results in a fine dispersion of austenite phase during the cooling step after hot rolling. At lower temperature, P retards austenite decomposition and enhances martensite transformation when the strip is coiled at 250°C or below. This new high strength steel exhibits low yield-to-tensile strength ratio of 60-70%, while in conventional high strength steels, for example, a 0.15wt%C-1.5wt%Mn steel hot rolled and coiled at 400°C or below after rapid cooling, the yield ratio is about 75%. Besides it exhibits higher ductility, good stretch-flangeability, good fatigue property, good weldability and extremely high bake-hardenability compared to the C-Mn steel. Embrittleness due to segregation of P to grain boundaries was not observed in sheets and welded joints.