Investigations of the fuel injection processes in a spark ignition direct injection engine have been performed for two different fuels. The goal of this research was to determine the differences between isooctane, which is often used as an alternative to gasoline for optical engine investigations, and a special, non-fluorescing, full boiling range multicomponent fuel. The apparent vaporization characteristics of isooctane and the multicomponent fuel were examined in homogeneous operating mode with direct injection during the intake stroke. To this end, simultaneous Mie scattering and planar laser induced fluorescence imaging experiments were performed in a transparent research engine. Both fuels were mixed with 3-Pentanone as a fluorescence tracer. A frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser was used as both the fluorescent excitation source and the light scattering source.
The combustion processes optimization is one of the most important factors to enhancing thermal efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions of combustion engines [1; 2]. Future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines require that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, such as carbon dioxide, to be reduced. One possible way to reduce exhaust gas emissions from two-stroke small off-road engines (SORE) is to use biogenic fuels. Because of their nearly closed carbon dioxide circuit, the emissions of carbon dioxide decrease compared to the use of fossil fuels. Also biogenic fuels have a significant influence on the combustion process and thus the emissions of different exhaust gas components may be reduced. Besides greenhouse gases, several other exhaust gas components need to be reduced because of their toxicity to the human health. For example, aromatic hydrocarbons cause dangerous health problems, and can be reduced by using alkylate fuel.
Advanced thermal management systems in passenger cars present a possibility to increase efficiency of current and future vehicles. However, a vehicle integrated thermal management of the combustion engine is essential to optimize the overall thermal system. This paper shows results of an experimental heat flux analysis of a state-of-the-art automotive diesel engine with common rail injection, map-controlled thermostat and split cooling system. Measurements on a climatic chamber engine test bench were performed to investigate heat fluxes and energy balance in steady-state operation and during engine warm-up from different engine start temperatures. The analysis includes the influence of the operating point and operating parameters like EGR rate, injection strategy and coolant temperature on the engine energy balance.
Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
This paper presents the results of a study on reasons for the occurrence of pre-ignition in highly supercharged spark ignition engines. During the study, the phenomena to be taken into account were foremost structured into a decision tree according to their physical working principles. Using this decision tree all conceivable single mechanisms to be considered as reasons for pre-ignition could be derived. In order to judge each of them with respect to their ability to promote pre-ignition in a test engine, experimental investigations as well as numerical simulations were carried out. The interdependence between engine operating conditions and pre-ignition frequency was examined experimentally by varying specific parameters. Additionally, optical measurements using an UV sensitive high-speed camera system were performed to obtain information about the spatial distribution of pre-ignition origins and their progress.
The emission behaviour of an internal combustion engine under test-bed conditions shows differences to the emission behaviour under real in-use conditions. Because of this fact, the developers of combustion engines and the legislator are focussing on the measurement and optimization of real in-use emissions. To this day, the research, the adjustment of the carburettor and the legislation of small handheld engines is performed under test bench conditions, especially conditioned fuel pressure and temperature, as well as air temperature. Also the engines are laid out for two operation points: rated speed with full open throttle and idle speed. This test-procedure is used for all kinds of handheld off-road applications and does not consider the load profile of the different power tools. Especially applications with transient load profiles, for example chainsaws, work in more than two operating points in real use.
In this work the influence of various engine load changes with different engine speeds on the soot particle concentrations and properties was investigated because these operating modes are well known for short but high soot emissions. To derive specific information on emission behavior of particle matters tests were carried out with the Two-Color-Method and the so called RAYLIX technique in a four-cylinder CR-Diesel engine. The Two-Color-Method (2CM) gives crank angle resolved information about soot formation and oxidation processes inside the combustion chamber of a single cylinder. The RAYLIX technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII) and extinction measurements which enable simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean primary particle radii and number densities in the exhaust gas manifold of the same cylinder investigated by the Two-Color-Method.
Spark ignited engines with direct injection (DISI) in fuel stratified mode promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to reduced pumping losses at part load. However, the need for expensive lean NOx catalysts may reduce this advantage. Therefore, a Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. It is characterised by a combination of a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. An important feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy. A pre injection in the inlet stroke produces a homogeneous lean mixture with an air fuel ratio of λ = 1.5 to λ = 1.7. A second injection with a small quantity of fuel is directed towards the piston bowl during the compression stroke. The enriched air fuel mixture of the piston bowl is transported by the pressure difference between main combustion chamber and prechamber into the prechamber.
A multi-optical fiber measurement technique is presented which can determine spatial flame propagation with a high temporal resolution. With this measurement technique it is possible to investigate the combustion process in both Diesel and SI engines. The measurement technique can also be applied for the detection of flame propagation in research engines and in actual production engines for performing analysis of special problems such as knocking combustion, combustion chamber design studies which concern flame propagation, the influence of engine parameters on flame propagation, ignition and inflammability behavior. The new measurement technique is discussed in detail and the application of optical measuring points in the combustion chamber walls is demonstrated. A special non-contacting optical transmission system has been developed for the observation of flame propagation.
Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
Natural vegetable oil like rape seed oil is a potential substitute for regular fuel for diesel engines. Compared to other biogen fuels like rape seed methyl ester (RME), pure rape seed oil is neutral towards groundwater and it needs considerably less energy and additives for production. Different physical properties of rape seed oil compared to Diesel fuel are the reason why conventional Diesel engines can hardly be used satisfactorily with rape seed oil without being modified. Poor exhaust-emission behavior is caused by the incomplete combustion. Due to poor spray atomization of vegetable oil, an increased fuel entrainment in the lubricating oil, carbonization in the combustion chamber and deposits at injectors and valves are further drawbacks of injection systems designed for conventional diesel fuel. The preheating of this fuel can solve some problems.
The paper presents an application of a quasi-dimensional (QD) model for the combustion simulation in a two-stroke engine. In contrast to 0D-models the QD-models provide an opportunity to describe the development of the combustion process in dependence on the actual thermodynamic state in the combustion chamber. The QD-models enable to couple the flame propagation with the combustion chamber geometry and with the flow field. An extensive sensitivity analysis is performed for the QD-model by varying the parameters of the QD-model itself and of the operating points. The constructed QD-model is examined under various conditions (engine speed, the delivery ratio and the air to fuel ratio) and shows a good agreement with experimental results.
The cyclic changes of the cylinder pressure are mainly influenced by the primary inflammation phase, which in turn depends on the local air/fuel ratio and the residual-gas fraction at the spark plug. The ion-current measurement technique is based on the conductivity of the mixture during the internal combustion. It is therefore possible to use the signal for combustion diagnostics when using the spark plug as a sensor. This article demonstrates the potential of ion sensing at the spark plug and in the combustion chamber to detect sources of interference which prevent an optimal combustion process. Comparing the ion signals of consecutive combustion cycles delivers explanations of phenomena that could not yet be sufficiently characterized by cylinder-pressure indication. The results allow new fundamental approaches to the optimization of the combustion process.
The study presented in this two part paper was focused on the influence of primary mixture formation on engine running behavior covering the areas combustion and raw emissions. Two different concepts for primary fuel atomization were utilized and compared, the standard production injector and a flash boiling injector. The spray generated by the flash boiling injector was characterized by a significant reduction in droplet size and a partial direct vaporization during the injection process by preheating the fuel inside the injector. In this study special emphasis was put on the transient process of engine start between typical cooling water temperatures of -7°C and 85°C. Various measurements and visualization techniques were applied to investigate the mixture preparation, the deposition of liquid fuel on the walls, the start of combustion, and in-cylinder and engine-out UHC emissions.
The intention of the study presented in this two part paper is to investigate the influence oalf primary mixture formation on engine running behavior, covering the areas of combustion and raw emissions. Two different concepts for primary fuel atomization were utilized and compared, the standard production injector and a flash boiling injector. The flash boiling injector is characterized by a significant reduction in droplet size and a partial direct vaporization during the injection process by preheating the fuel inside the injector. In this study special emphasis was laid on the transient process of engine start between typical cooling water temperatures of -7°C and 85°C. Various measurements and visualization techniques had been applied to investigate mixture preparation, deposition of liquid fuel on the walls, start of combustion, and in-cylinder as well as engine-out UHC emissions.
A promising approach for reducing both NOx- and particulate matter emissions with low fuel consumption is the so called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Single-cylinder engine tests were carried out to assess the influence of several parameters on the HCCI combustion. The experiments were performed both with port fuel injection (PFI) and with direct injection (DI) under various compression ratios, intake air temperatures and EGR-rates. Special emphasis was put on the fuel composition by using different gasoline and diesel fuels as well as n-heptane. Besides engine out emissions (CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC, soot) and in-cylinder pressure indication for burning process analysis, the combustion itself was visualised using an optical probe.
Optical investigations using optical fibres were carried out in the first available direct injection SI-engine, the Mitsubishi GDI, in the driving mode. The optical access to the combustion chamber was realized by 8 optical sensors evenly distributed in a ring on the ground electrode of the standard spark plug. All investigations, steady state (constant load and velocity) and unsteady state (engine starts), show, that there is preferred flame propagation to the intake valves, caused by a reverse tumble in-cylinder flow. As the inflammation depends on thermodynamic conditions, flow characteristics and the actual air/fuel-ratio at the spark plug, the optical sensors can be used to describe the quality of stratification.
This paper presents a special optical fiber technique which allows to measure temperatures in SI engines using the emission bands or respectively emission lines of the temperature radiation of diatomic molecules. The measurement technique enables the detection of average temperature in a small volume element. These temperatures are used to determine the local NO concentrations using the extended Zeldovich-mechanism. First, theoretical background of both temperature and NO-determination and measurement technique including optical fiber sensors are described. Finally, the temperature and NO dependence versus crank angle are presented and discussed at different combustion chamber locations for different engine operating conditions.