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Technical Paper

On the Way to An International Standard for Automotive Applications-Osek/Vdx

Electronic systems in vehicles characteristically consist of several distributed electronic control units (ECUs) from different suppliers. This situation hinders the integration of automotive systems and increases the overall costs due to individual solutions coming from each supplier. In order to get rid of these disadvantages, the French-German project OSEK/VDX was founded and is now drawing attention worldwide. OSEK/VDX worked out a respective specification to standardize services and protocols of communication, network management and a real-time operating system. An overview of the current state of OSEK/VDX including specifications and harmonization process with ISO is given. Furthermore a description of the Modistarc project working on methodologies and tools for conformance testing of commercial OSEK/VDX implementations is contained.
Technical Paper

Distributed Realtime Processing in Automotive Networks

The formulation of software tasks as parallel processes allows their implementation within distributed microcontrollers. The requirements for Automotive Networks to support these applications are discussed. By introduction of a locality measure, a classification of networks can be made either into interactive distributed realtime processing or into classical communication. Given a sufficiantly small locality, the physical network extension does not have an impact on the implementation. A concept i presented how to integrate process dispachting and synchronization. Based upon this concept, functions may be formulated independant of their location in a specific microcontroller.
Technical Paper

Application Specific Microcontroller for Multiplex Wiring

The new aerial communication protocol “Controller Area Network” (CAN) efficiently supports distributed realtime control in automotive applications. In order to unload CPUs from high-speed message transfer, dedicated CAN hardware handles messages up to the communication object level. In multiplex wiring message rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower, allowing to implement the upper communication level more cost-effectively in software. This reduces CAN interface hardware to bitwise protocol handling only. It may be incorporated even into low-end microcontrollers without significantly increasing chip size. Thus the same CAN protocol supports the entire range of serial automotive communication, matching implementation costs to requirements at each performance level.
Technical Paper

Error Handling Strategies for Automotive Networks

A significant portion of communication in Automotive Networks consists of signals, which are vital to the safety of the vehicle. In addition to requirements resulting from the actual transfer of information an Automotive Communication Protocol has to incorporate properties which ensure operational safety even in presence of errors. Based upon a discrimination into reversible errors and irreversible failures, defect nodes have to be determined and subsequently disconnected from the network. In this paper proper schemes for error detection, report, recovery and confinement are presented.
Technical Paper

Car Control by a Central Electronic System

Coordination and concentration of different electronic functions within a car with the objective of functional cooperation and, if possible, incorporation into a single package to reduce costs and improve reliability is discussed. The alternatives of a Special Purpose Computer or a General Purpose Realtime Computer are described with regard to available sensor technology.
Technical Paper

Automotive Serial Controller Area Network

A high speed serial communication link has been developed for interconnecting electronic control units within automobiles. The incorporation of object oriented communication in conjunction with acceptance filtering introduces a new level of message handling efficiency and flexibility. Powerful error handling techniques guarantee safe operation in noisy automotive environments.
Technical Paper

Advanced Techniques for Off- and Online-Identification of a Heavy Truck Driveline

One goal of modern power train control systems in heavy trucks is to damp driveline oscillations using appropriate controllers. Modern control algorithms like state-space controllers are based on a state-space model, which should accurately characterize the real process behavior. Otherwise, optimal control can not be guaranteed. These state-space models include a huge number of parameters, which have to be identified by an identification process. However, existing driveline models contain two serious problems: an increasing offset over time between measured and simulated data and an inadequate detection of the longitudinal dynamics of the truck. Therefore, this article deals with two goals: to optimize the offline identification process for the special use in driveline systems and to establish an online adaptation of the model parameters to guarantee an optimal model fit.
Technical Paper

The OSEK/VDX Standard for Automotive Applications - Current Status

The aim of OSEK/VDX is an industry standard for open architectures in vehicles. Originally founded as a Franco - German joint project, OSEK/VDX is now drawing worldwide attention. In the project, services and protocols are specified to standardize Communication, Network Management and a real-time Operating System. Its architecture offers a network-independent interface while taking into account the constraints of automotive applications in terms of size and cost. A structured and modular software implementation based on standardized interfaces and protocols as proposed by OSEK/VDX is a necessary condition for portability and extendibility, and thus reusability of existing software. An overview of the current status of OSEK/VDX is presented.
Technical Paper

Real Multi-Partitioning for Optimized Distributing and Allocating Software in Vehicle Networks

In this paper two new approaches are presented how to partition an amount of functions distributed in automotive electronic systems. In contrast to common partitioning algorithms as Kernighan-Lin, Best-Gain-First, Simulated-Annealing, a.s.o., these algorithms are real multi-partitioning ones. With respect to ECU (electronic control unit) characteristics, the software functions to be partitioned will be allocated automatically onto the available hardware. Main motivation is the reduction of the resulting bus-load which is provoked by the communication between such functions. Moreover these algorithms optimize the final partitioning solution to achieve a reduced number of ECUs. Reducing bus-load and the number of ECUs can lead to significant cost reduction. In order to validate partitioning results, a CAN as well as a FlexRay model was developed in Matlab/Simulink determining the bus-load over time.
Technical Paper

On Reliable Communication and Group Membership in Safety-Relevant Automotive Electronic Systems

As automotive systems are becoming increasingly distributed, communication between their components is becoming even more eminent. In safety-relevant distributed systems, the reliability of communication between nodes is crucial for the safety of a system. To guarantee such reliability, it is prerequisite that all nodes in the system have a consistent view of which nodes are functioning correctly and which are not (group membership). In this paper existing algorithms for ensuring group membership are presented and possible solutions for communication systems without such functionality, for example FlexRay, as well as a solution for a network based approach are outlined.
Technical Paper

Misfire Detection for Vehicles with Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) Based on Reconstructed Engine Torque

Today, in many passenger cars and light trucks, the conventional driveline is extended by a dual mass flywheel (DMF). The DMF reduces driveline oscillations by mechanically decoupling the crankshaft and the transmission. Existing engine control systems are general designed for use with conventional single mass flywheel (SMF) systems. In the future, to facilitate the optimal control of engines equipped with advanced DMF systems, these conventional control systems may require adaptation, modification or even replacement. In the past, misfire detection has been done by expensive dedicated sensors; seismic, ion current measurement at the spark plugs or even by measuring in-cylinder pressures directly. Typically misfire detection is performed using signals derived from the crankshaft position sensor, which works well for engines with a limited number of cylinders and which are connected to relatively simply drivelines.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Lateral Vehicle Dynamics Control via Adaptation of a Quality Function

In this approach a nonlinear controller for the lateral vehicle dynamics is designed. The basis for the design is a nonlinear model of the lateral vehicle dynamics in state space representation consisting of three states: The vehicle velocity, the yaw rate as well as the vehicle body sideslip angle (VBSSA). As control variables the yaw rate and the VBSSA are chosen. To assure the vehicle follows the driver's directional intent, the yaw rate is adapted to a desired reference value determined by means of a linear single track model. The second control variable -the VBSSA- is utilized to reduce the lateral forces. Incorporating the VBSSA, the controller's behavior can be significantly improved. Thus, a nonlinear controller is designed which is capable to stabilize the vehicle in critical driving situations. This nonlinear controller is based on an adaptation of a quality function for the nonlinear model to the one for a linear reference system.
Technical Paper

ISODATA Clustering for Optimized Software Allocation in Distributed Automotive Electronic Systems

In this paper an approach is presented to determine an adequate number of clusters automatically in case of clustering a distributed automotive electronic system. Hereby, this approach is based on the ISODATA clustering algorithm. Its advantages are its flexibility and less computational effort in comparison to normally used partitioning algorithms. In order to cluster a distributed automotive electronic system with respect to a reduced external communication the input data normally used for partitioning algorithms has to be adapted. Besides, a new overall quality criterion is introduced to validate the results of clustering in reference to the busload before test stage.
Technical Paper

Comparison & Development of Combustion Engine Models for Driveline Simulation

Today, in many passenger cars and light trucks, the conventional driveline is extended by a dual mass flywheel (DMF). The DMF reduces driveline oscillations by mechanically decoupling the crankshaft and the transmission. Existing engine control systems are designed for conventional single mass flywheel (SMF) systems. In the future, to facilitate the optimal control of engines equipped with advanced DMF systems, such conventional control systems may require adaptation, modification or even replacement. The design and testing of appropriate new control systems has required the development of various types of engine models. In this paper, various engine modeling techniques are introduced and compared in respect to their capabilities for both driveline simulation and control system development.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter for Vehicle Dynamics Determination Based on a Nonlinear Model Combining Longitudinal and Lateral Dynamics

The vehicle body sideslip angle (VBSSA) is a key variable in vehicle dynamics indicating critical driving situations. It is, e.g., essential in vehicle dynamics control concepts. Since it cannot be measured with standard sensors, it has to be determined via a model based approach. Thereto an Extended Kalman Filter will be presented that is capable of describing the VBSSA with high accuracy. The filter design is based on a nonlinear double track model combining the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. Starting point is a double track model with three state variables, that are the velocity in the center of gravity, the VBSSA and the yaw rate. Then, the longitudinal dynamics are incorporated, yielding the velocity and the longitudinal forces at the individual wheels. The resulting nonlinear state space model only requires information that is provided by the standard sensors available in series production vehicles. On basis of this nonlinear model an Extended Kalman Filter is derived.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Reliability of Drive-by-Wire Control Units by Fault Compensation using Data Fusion

As future drive-by-wire systems have no mechanical fallback level, the increased safety requirements need to be met by software-based solutions. The task of the software is to provide services in the field of fault detection and compensation as well as control of redundant hardware structures. Particularly the implementation of fault detection and error correction avoids fatal output of drive-by-wire control units caused by erroneous input signals. This article describes the implementation of a module compensating faults in the input signals of a vehicle function, which controls the longitudinal dynamics of a truck. The error correction is achieved by means of data fusion. Sensing units consisting of the sensor as well as the preprocessing unit often are provided by external suppliers. In some cases information regarding the characteristics of their output data written on the CAN bus is not available.
Technical Paper

Automatic Model Based Partitioning of Distributed Automotive Electric Systems

There are a number of tools available to assist the engineer during the automotive electronics design process, for example when transferring a graphical specification to a real time rapid prototyping environment. One step in this tool chain however is largely ignored by automated design tools: mapping a large monolithic model to a distributed system, more specifically the mapping of several functions on only a few electronic control units (ECUs) which are connected by a bus. In this paper we will present a method to analyze the underlying functional structure of a given model, partition it using a heuristic algorithm and verify the results with a model of the CAN bus. Based on a given functional model, we will show how to extract an algebraic representation of the communication behavior, the adjacency matrix. Using the adjacency matrix, the heuristic algorithm Best Gain First can be applied to map functions to ECUs.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy System to Determine the Vehicle Yaw Angle

The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection in Distributed Automotive Electronic Systems Using Hierarchical Colored Bayesian Petri-Nets

In this paper the problem of fault detection in distributed systems is addressed. Due to the trend that these systems are incorporating an increasing number of subsystems from different suppliers fault detection is becoming an essential part of distributed system design. While meeting the typical constraints of the automotive industry there is the demand on increased safety and improved availability. Because of the connection of different subsystems, errors propagate through the system and may affect other subsystems where they can be detected. The key task which is dealt with in this paper is to detect the origin of these errors. Therefore, Hierarchical Colored Bayesian Petri-Nets are introduced to fulfill fault detection according to Bayesian networks. To reduce calculation efforts, the principle of clustering is included.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimized Allocation of Control Functions to a Distributed Architecture

In this paper we present the results of a project that concentrates on the design of distributed embedded systems for control-related applications. The OPTMAP (Optimal Mapping of Virtual Control Functions to a Distributed Architecture) framework supports the function allocation based on given constrains involving a feasible solution. The control systems we will consider use a time-triggered paradigm for sensor reading and event-driven behavior for inter-processor communication. Sensor values are read at fixed periods in time and data processing occurs after the control unit receives the proper message. The aim of the project is to get an optimized mapping which minimizes information traffic on the network and guarantees that all processing units are able to handle the distributed control functions in real time.