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Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection Abord the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2622
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Service Module of the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2355
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
Technical Paper

Updated Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate and Urine for the International Space Station

1997-07-14
972559
At the initial phase of the construction of the international space station (ISS) water supply will be provided by the systems located in the Russian segment. The paper reviews the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine to be incorporated in the Russian segment of the ISS. The similar systems have been successfully operated on the Mir space station. The updates aim at enhancing system cost-effectiveness and reliability. The system for water recovery from humidity condensate (WRS-C) features an added assembly for the removal of organic contaminants to be catalytically oxidized in an air/liquid flow at ambient temperature and pressure. The system for water reclamation from urine (WRS-U) incorporates a new distillation subsystem based on vacuum distillation with a multistage rotary distiller and a vapor compression or thermoelectric heat pump. The updating of the WRS-C system will enable an increase in the multifiltration bed's life at least two fold.
Technical Paper

Development of Urine Processor Distillation Hardware for Space Stations

1995-07-01
951605
This paper describes the results of research and tests of different patterns of distillation processes for water reclamation from urine accomplished by NIICHIMMASH in cooperation with other companies. Several typical patterns of evaporation to air flow from water-retentive porous bodies, from the surface confined by capillary/porous membranes and from free liquid surface in rotary units under atmospheric and reduced pressure are analyzed. Relevant condensation processes are reviewed. Performance data for distillation unit of SS MIR system for water reclamation from urine are outlined. The paper highlights the prospects of distillation hardware development.
Technical Paper

Systems for Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine for Space Station

1994-06-01
941536
This paper deals with water reclamation from humidity condensate and urine schematics and processes realized on orbital space stations Salut and Mir. The results of research in updated processes and schematics for condensate separation, purification and distillation with heat energy recovery are described. It is shown that the processes and hardware make possible to reduce energy demand and the weight of the water recovery systems under operation on space stations.
Technical Paper

Water Supply Based on Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine on a Space Station

1996-07-01
961408
The paper reviews an integrated system for space station water supply based on a combination of water recovery systems and a water resupply system. The water balance data and system performance data in long-duration operation on the Mir space station are presented. A water supply concept for the Russian's segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantiated.
Technical Paper

Problems of Developing Systems for Water Reclamation from Urine for Perspective Space Stations

1996-07-01
961409
The paper deals with possible performance enhancement of the system for water reclamation from urine based on a principle of atmospheric distillation. It is shown by way of example using the system operating on Mir that the introduction of heat energy recuperation, an increase in heat-and-mass transfer efficiency on evaporation and the optimization of the air flowrate in the distillation cycle allow a rise in the capacity of the distillation assembly and a reduction in specific energy. The system outfitted with a rotary evaporator/separator and a thermoelectric heat pump is reviewed. The design and experimental data verify the feasibility and benefits of the system updating.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Water Recovery Program

1996-07-01
961336
This paper reviews designs of urine distillation systems for spacecraft water recovery. Consideration is given to both air evaporation and vacuum distillation cycles, to the means for improving cycle performance (such as heat pumps, multistaging, and rotary evaporators), and to system concepts offering promise for future development. Vacuum distillation offers lower power consumption, at some increase in system complexity; air evaporation distillation is capable of providing higher water recovery efficiency, which could offset the lower power consumption advantage of vacuum distillation for long-duration missions.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis Aboard the International Space Station

2002-07-15
2002-01-2358
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Rationale and Selection of a Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1998-07-13
981714
A selection of a distillation subsystem with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller (RMVD) and a heat pump (HP) for the system for water reclamation from urine for the international space station is substantiated. The results of computational/experimental analysis of specific energy for distillation with RMVD and HP of different type used are presented. The test results of an experimental system mockup are given. It is shown that the subsystem of a given type is stable in operation, features high condensate processing rate and low specific energy demand.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Vacuum Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1999-07-12
1999-01-1993
This paper reviews the development and testing of the distillation subsystem of water regeneration system from urine (WRS-UM) based on a method of vacuum distillation with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller and a thermal pump. Test results show that with relatively small power consumption the subsystem using rotary three-stage vacuum distiller provides high rates of heat and mass transfer processes, useful productivity and distillate quality. The conducted tests have confirmed that it will be efficient to use the presented system as a part of WRS-UM system in Russian segment of the International Space Station.
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