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Standard

Tests to Define Tire Size (Geometry), Mass, and Inertias

2012-06-21
HISTORICAL
J2717_201206
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a trio of test methods which determine basic tire size (geometry), mass, and moments of inertia. The methods apply to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular surfaces paved or unpaved. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the surface on which the tire is operating are not considered.
Standard

Modal Testing and Identification of Lower Order Tire Natural Frequencies of Radial Tires

2017-09-19
CURRENT
J2710_201709
This SAE Recommended Practice describes test methods for measuring and identifying the natural frequencies for the lower order modes of an inflated radial tire with a fixed spindle while expending modest effort and employing a minimum of test equipment. The methods apply to any size of radial tire so long as the test equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. Two types of boundary conditions are considered for the tire: unloaded and loaded against a flat surface. The test involves the performance and measurement of an input vibratory force (excitation) to the tire and the corresponding vibratory output (response). The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE 1—The focus of this standard is identification and reporting of the lower order natural frequencies of the tire using a simple test procedure.
Standard

Modal Testing and Identification of Lower Order Tire Natural Frequencies of Radial Tires

2012-04-12
HISTORICAL
J2710_201204
This SAE Recommended Practice describes test methods for measuring and identifying the natural frequencies for the lower order modes of an inflated radial tire with a fixed spindle while expending modest effort and employing a minimum of test equipment. The methods apply to any size of radial tire so long as the test equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. Two types of boundary conditions are considered for the tire: unloaded and loaded against a flat surface. The test involves the performance and measurement of an input vibratory force (excitation) to the tire and the corresponding vibratory output (response). The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE 1—The focus of this standard is identification and reporting of the lower order natural frequencies of the tire using a simple test procedure.
Standard

Tire Quasi-Static Envelopment of Triangular/Step Cleats Test

2012-11-06
HISTORICAL
J2705_201211
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining properties of a non-rolling tire quasi-statically enveloping either a set of triangular cleats or a single step cleat. In the case of the triangular cleats the normal force and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. In the case of the step cleats the normal force, longitudinal force, and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly sized to correctly conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.1 The data are intended for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tire Quasi-Static Envelopment of Triangular/Step Cleats Test

2018-03-18
HISTORICAL
J2705_201803
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining properties of a non-rolling tire quasi-statically enveloping either a set of triangular cleats or a single step cleat. In the case of the triangular cleats the normal force and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. In the case of the step cleats the normal force, longitudinal force, and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly sized to correctly conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.1 The data are intended for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tire Quasi-Static Envelopment of Triangular/Step Cleats Test

2018-11-20
CURRENT
J2705_201811
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining properties of a non-rolling tire quasi-statically enveloping either a set of triangular cleats or a single step cleat. In the case of the triangular cleats the normal force and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. In the case of the step cleats the normal force, longitudinal force, and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly sized to correctly conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.1 The data are intended for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tire Normal Force/Deflection and Gross Footprint Dimension Test

2010-09-07
HISTORICAL
J2704_201009
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining the vertical force and deflection properties of a non-rolling tire and the associated contact patch length and width. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE—Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tire Normal Force/Deflection and Gross Footprint Dimension Test

2017-09-05
HISTORICAL
J2704_201709
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining the vertical force and deflection properties of a non-rolling tire and the associated contact patch length and width. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tire Normal Force/Deflection and Gross Footprint Dimension Test

2018-11-20
CURRENT
J2704_201811
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining the vertical force and deflection properties of a non-rolling tire and the associated contact patch length and width. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tests to Define Tire Size (Geometry), Mass, and Inertias

2018-05-16
HISTORICAL
J2717_201805
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a trio of test methods which determine basic tire size (geometry), mass, and moments of inertia. The methods apply to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular surfaces paved or unpaved. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the surface on which the tire is operating are not considered.
Standard

Tests to Define Tire Size (Geometry), Mass, Inertias

2018-11-20
CURRENT
J2717_201811
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a trio of test methods which determine basic tire size (geometry), mass, and moments of inertia. The methods apply to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular surfaces paved or unpaved. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the surface on which the tire is operating are not considered.
Standard

Subjective Rating Scale for Vehicle Ride and Handling

2016-09-23
CURRENT
J1441_201609
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a rating scale for subjective evaluation of vehicle ride and handling. The scale is applicable for the evaluation of specific vehicle ride and handling properties, for specified maneuvers, road characteristics and driving conditions, on proving ground and public roads. The validity of the evaluation is restricted to the individual ride and handling disciplines defined by these maneuvers and to the particular combination of conditions of the vehicle (e.g., equipment, degree of maintenance) and of the environment (e.g., road, weather). This rating scale may not be suitable for some applications, such as specific types of ride or handling qualities, driver populations and market segments, or for correlating with objective measures. Appendix A - Other Scales discusses rating scales that better suit such applications.
Standard

Subjective Rating Scale for Vehicle Handling

1998-03-01
HISTORICAL
J1441_199803
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a rating scale for subjective evaluation of vehicle handling. The scale is applicable for the evaluation of specific vehicle handling properties in specific maneuvers on the proving grounds and highways. The validity of the evaluation is restricted to the individual handling disciplines defined by these maneuvers and to the particular combination of conditions of the vehicle (e.g., equipment, degree of maintenance) and of the environment (e.g., road, weather). This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
Standard

Dynamic Cleat Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2013-09-05
CURRENT
J2730_201309
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a high frequency response spindle when a rolling tire impacts a cleat. The cleat is configured either with its crest perpendicular, 90°, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides impact force and moment time histories essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development.
Standard

Low Speed Enveloping Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2018-11-20
CURRENT
J2731_201811
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a spindle when a tire rolls over a rectangular obstacle, cleat, at very low speed. The cleat used in a particular test condition is configured with its crest either perpendicular, 90 degrees, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides cleat envelopment force and moment and tire angular position histories as functions of distance traveled. These histories are essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.
Standard

Low Speed Enveloping Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2012-05-23
HISTORICAL
J2731_201205
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a spindle when a tire rolls over a rectangular obstacle, cleat, at very low speed. The cleat used in a particular test condition is configured with its crest either perpendicular, 90°, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides cleat envelopment force and moment and tire angular position histories as functions of distance traveled. These histories are essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.
Standard

Low Speed Enveloping Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2018-05-16
HISTORICAL
J2731_201805
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a spindle when a tire rolls over a rectangular obstacle, cleat, at very low speed. The cleat used in a particular test condition is configured with its crest either perpendicular, 90 degrees, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides cleat envelopment force and moment and tire angular position histories as functions of distance traveled. These histories are essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.
Standard

Steady-State Directional Control Test Procedures for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

1996-01-01
HISTORICAL
J266_199601
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes consistent test procedures for determination of steady-state directional control properties for passenger cars and light trucks with single axles. These properties include the gradients with respect to lateral acceleration of steering wheel angle, understeer/ oversteer, sideslip, roll angle, and steering wheel torque; the gains with respect to steering wheel angle of yaw velocity, lateral acceleration, and sideslip; the characteristic speed or critical speed; and the total, steering, and tire compliances at the front and rear wheels.
Standard

Steady-State Directional Control Test Procedures for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

2018-11-28
CURRENT
J266_201811
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes consistent test procedures for determination of steady-state directional control properties for passenger cars and light trucks with two axles. These properties include the steering-wheel angle gradient, reference steer angle gradient, sideslip angle gradient, vehicle roll angle gradient, and steering-wheel torque gradient with respect to lateral acceleration. They also include the yaw velocity gain, lateral acceleration gain, and sideslip angle gain with respect to steering-wheel angle. Additionally, the characteristic or critical speed and the front and rear wheel steer compliances may be determined.
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