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Technical Paper

A Two-Tracer LIF Strategy for Quantitative Oxygen Imaging in Engines Applied to Study the Influence of Skip-Firing on In-Cylinder Oxygen Contents of an SIDI Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1114
The effect of skip-firing (which is often applied in optical engine work) on the available in-cylinder oxygen concentration was investigated with a laser-induced fluorescence imaging setup that combines the measurement of fluorescence signals from toluene and 3-pentanone to quantitatively determine the distribution of molecular oxygen. We describe in detail the image processing procedure for this measurement. The reduction of in-cylinder oxygen when switching from skip-fired to continuous-fired engine operation is measured and compared to traditional exhaust measurements.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in an SI Engine Using Two-Line Tracer LIF

1998-10-19
982468
Transient two-dimensional temperature distributions in the compression stroke and in the unburned end-gas of an SI engine were measured employing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a fuel marker that possesses strongly temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties. The use of two different excitation wavelengths simplifies the otherwise complicated relation between LIF signal intensity and system parameters. The temperature fields obtained in this manner can be used to correct measured tracer-LIF maps and thus help to determine fuel distributions. Averaged temperature fields are compared to model calculations based on a homogeneous reactor assumption.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Mapping of the Distribution of Different Fuel Volatility Classes Using Tracer-LIF Tomography in an IC Engine

1998-10-19
982467
Various fluorescence tracers were assessed for their applicability for simultaneously measuring fuel distributions of different volatility classes. Tracers were chosen to show significantly different boiling behaviour representing three volatility classes of non-fluorescing multi-component fuels. Fluorescence properties of the markers were investigated using a heated static high-pressure cell with respect to emission behaviour, temperature and pressure dependence and quenching influences. A combination of ketonic and aromatic tracers appeared to be ideal for simultaneous imaging purposes since fluorescence is emitted in separate spectral regions with little overlap. Simultaneous measurements of the fuel distribution of two volatility classes were performed in a port fuel injected engine showing significant differences in the fuel distributions of low and mid boiling fractions in early stages of compression.
Technical Paper

Scale Similarity Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Particle Image Velocimetry and Large-Eddy Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0172
This presentation is an assessment of the turbulence-stress scale-similarity in an IC engine, which is used for modeling subgrid dissipation in LES. Residual stresses and Leonard stresses were computed after applying progressively smaller spatial filters to measured and simulated velocity distributions. The velocity was measured in the TCC-II engine using planar and stereo PIV taken in three different planes and with three different spatial resolutions, thus yielding two and three velocity components, respectively. Comparisons are made between the stresses computed from the measured velocity and stress computed from the LES resolved-scale velocity from an LES simulation. The results present the degree of similarity between the residual stresses and the Leonard stresses at adjacent scales. The specified filters are systematically reduced in size to the resolution limits of the measurements and simulation.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0192
A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Investigation of In-Cylinder and Exhaust NO in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine: Effect of Intake Temperature and Simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3685
The formation of NO was investigated in a spray-guided spark-ignition direct-injection gasoline engine. The influence of variations in intake air temperature and simulated exhaust gas recirculation was examined in an optical single-cylinder engine, fueled with iso-octane. Cycle-resolved simultaneous measurements of OH-chemiluminescence, NO laser induced fluorescence, and fast NO exhaust gas sampling allowed a detailed view of the formation process of NO in this engine. Overall, it was found that cycle-resolved information is needed to explain the differences found between operating conditions, since the initial high stratification of fuel leads to large spatial gradients in the NO concentration. Averaged in-cylinder NO distributions do not adequately reflect the formation process rather than show a smoothed distribution that may even be counter-intuitive based on averaged chemiluminescence data.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Imaging of Fuel Distribution, Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3753
A combination of imaging techniques for investigations of highly transient processes and cyclic variations in internal combustion engines is presented. The single high-speed camera setup uses a CMOS camera combined with a two-stage image-intensifier and two excimer lasers. Fuel mixing, ignition and combustion were monitored via planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of toluene as a tracer that was added to iso-octane in combination with the simultaneous recording of light emission from the spark plasma and OH* chemiluminescence of the developing flame. Image frame rates of 12 kHz for hundreds of cycles were achieved. Application to misfire events in a spray-guided gasoline direct-injection engine is described to illustrate the merits of the technique.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments

2004-10-25
2004-01-2975
For applications of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the fuel or equivalence ratio distributions in internal combustion (IC) engines it is typically assumed that the addition of a fluorescence tracer to a base fuel does not alter the combustion performance. We have investigated the impact on combustion performance through the addition of various amounts of 3-pentanone or toluene to iso-octane fuel. Correlations between equivalence ratio for a range of fuel/tracer mixtures and engine parameters, like peak pressure, location of peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and peak burn rate are discussed for data obtained in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine operated with near homogeneous charge. For typical tracer concentrations the impact on combustion performance is mostly negligible.
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