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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Species-Based Multi-Component Volatility Model for Gasoline

1994-10-01
941877
A fuel volatility model based on the major species present in the fuel has been formulated. The model accurately predicts the ASTM distillation curves and Reid Vapor Pressure for hydrocarbon fuels. The model may be used to assess the fuel effects on the extent of evaporation and the vapor composition in the mixture preparation process.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Analysis of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions Data

1994-10-01
941966
The engine-out (EO) total and speciated hydrocarbon emissions data from the Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study had been analyzed. The methodology was to first investigate the stabilized EO emissions (Bag 2) of a specific vehicle (Vehicle 04B, a 1989 Model Year Ford Taurus); then the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in Bag2 emissions were considered. Finally, the differences in the Bag2 and the starting/warm-up EO emissions (Bag1) were examined. The speciated emissions may be interpreted as a “feed-through” part due to the unreacted fuel species, and an “offset” part due to the decomposition products. The significant non-fuel emitted species were methane and the olefins. The HC emissions for vehicles with different total emissions were similar in species composition. For both the total and speciated emissions, there was no substantial difference between the Bag1 and Bag2 values for Vehicle 04B.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Fuel Species Oxidation Chemistry and Its Relationship to the Auto-Oil Data

1994-10-01
941970
The oxidation chemistry of paraffins, aromatics, olefins and MTBE were examined. Detailed chemical kinetics calculations were carried out for oxidation of these compounds in the engine cycle. The oxidation rates are very sensitive to temperature. At temperatures of over 1400 K (depending on the fuel), all the hydrocarbons are essentially oxidized for typical residence time in the engine. Based on the kinetics calculations, a threshold temperature is defined for the conversion of the fuel species to CO, CO2, H2O and partially oxidized products. The difference in the survival fraction between aromatics and non-aromatics is attributed to the higher threshold temperature of the aromatics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Design and Demonstration of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating in a Stratified-EGR Mode

1998-02-23
980122
This paper describes the development of a spark ignition engine operating in a stratified-EGR mode at part load. The concept is to reduce the pumping loss with high levels of EGR while maintaining stable combustion via charge stratification. Since the engine operates stoichiometrically, the ability to control NOx emissions by the three-way catalyst is retained. The configuration of introducing the stoichiometric fresh mixture to the center portion of the combustion chamber with the EGR gas on the two sides is visualized in a transparent engine using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and Mie scattering. Visualization results showed that the stratification between air/fuel mixture and EGR gas was relatively well established during the intake stroke. There was, however, significant mixing in the late part of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Ethanol Utilization: High Efficiency and Low NOx in an Engine Operating on Simulated Reformed Ethanol

2008-10-06
2008-01-2415
The use of hydrogen as a fuel supplement for lean-burn engines at higher compression ratios has been studied extensively in recent years, with good promise of performance and efficiency gains. With the advances in reformer technology, the use of a gaseous fuel stock, comprising of substantially higher fractions of hydrogen and other flammable reformate species, could provide additional improvements. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a gas mixture of equal volumes of hydrogen, CO, and methane. It has recently been reported that this gas mixture can be produced by reforming of ethanol at comparatively low temperature, around 300C. Experiments were performed on a 1.8-liter passenger-car Nissan engine modified for single-cylinder operation. Special pistons were made so that compression ratios ranging from CR= 9.5 to 17 could be used. The lean limit was extended beyond twice stoichiometric (up to lambda=2.2).
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1763
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0704
The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay Correlation for Engine Operating with Lean and with Rich Fuel-Air Mixtures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0699
An ignition delay correlation encompassing the effects of temperature, pressure, residual gas, EGR, and lambda (on both the rich and lean sides) has been developed. The procedure uses the individual knocking cycle data from a boosted direct injection SI engine (GM LNF) operating at 1250 to 2000 rpm, 8-14 bar GIMEP, EGR of 0 to 12.5%, and lambda of 0.8 to 1.3 with a certification fuel (Haltermann 437, with RON=96.6 and MON=88.5). An algorithm has been devised to identify the knock point on individual pressure traces so that the large data set (of some thirty three thousand cycles) could be processed automatically. For lean and for rich operations, the role of the excess fuel, air, and recycled gas (which has excess air in the lean case, and hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the rich case) may be treated effectively as diluents in the ignition delay expression.
Technical Paper

Fuel Metering Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions and Engine Stability During Cranking and Start-up in a Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2836
A cycle by cycle analysis of engine behavior during the first few cycles of cranking and start-up was performed on a production four-cylinder engine. Experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of initial engine position (rest position after last engine shut-down), first and second cycle fueling, engine temperature, and spark timing on fuel delivery to the cylinder, engine-out Hydrocarbon (EOHC) emissions, and Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEPg). The most important effect of the piston starting position is on the first firing cycle engine rpm, which influences the IMEPg through combustion phasing. Because of the low rpm values for the first cycle, combustion is usually too advanced with typical production engine ignition timing. For both the hot start and the ambient start, the threshold for firing is at an in-cylinder air equivalence ratio (λ) of 1.1.
Technical Paper

A Novel Strategy for Fast Catalyst Light-Off without the Use of an Air Pump

2007-01-23
2007-01-0044
A novel engine management strategy for achieving fast catalyst light-off without the use of an exhaust air pump in a port-fuel-injected, spark ignition engine was developed. A conventional 4-cylinder engine was operated with three cylinders running rich and the fourth one as an air pump to supply air to the exhaust manifold. Under steady-state cold coolant conditions, this strategy achieved near total oxidation of CO and HC with sufficiently retarded spark timing, resulting in a 400% increase in feedgas enthalpy flow and a 90% reduction in feedgas HC emissions compared to conventional operation. The strategy was also evaluated for crank starts. Using the existing engine hardware, implementing the strategy resulted in a reduction in catalyst light-off time from 28.0 seconds under conventional operation to 9.1 seconds.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Strategy on HC Emissions in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine During Fast Idle

2006-10-16
2006-01-3400
The interaction of intake port gas flow with the fuel spray in a port-fuel-injection engine is studied to see whether there are opportunities to facilitate the mixture preparation process and to improve the HC emissions through this interaction. The operating regime of interest is the fast idle period in a cold start. For single pulse injection, the HC emissions were not sensitive to injection details for closed-valve injection; emissions increased with open-valve injection. Then a split injection strategy was used in which the fuel was divided into two pulses. The first pulse was delivered during valve-closed; the second pulse was injected in the back flow period. Under cold-valve conditions, a small benefit (compared to close valve injection) was obtained with a second pulse fuel of 25%: 6% decrease in Specific HC emissions and 4.5% increase in the fuel delivery fraction.
Technical Paper

Fuel Sulfur and Aging Effects on the Oxygen Storage Capacity in Three-Way Catalytic Converters

2003-05-19
2003-01-1874
The catalyst oxygen storage capacities were measured over a test matrix consisted of fuels with 7, 33, 266 and 500 ppm sulfur, and of dynamometer-aged catalysts simulating 4K, 50K and 150K vehicle miles. A methodology was developed to relate the post-catalyst λ sensor response following an engine lean-step-transient to the total oxygen storage sites available. The time resolved NOx concentration profiles (which were most sensitive to the oxygen storage) in the catalyst were measured with the engine operating at λ modulations of various amplitudes and frequencies. The oxygen storage capacity deterioration comprised two multiplicative factors - an age factor which decreased quickly initially (by a factor of 2 from 4K to 50K miles), and then more modestly (by 30% from 50 to 150K miles), and a fuel sulfur factor which decreased by 10% for every 150 ppm increase in sulfur level.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and Hydrocarbon Emissions Behaviors in the First Cycle of SI Engine Cranking

2002-10-21
2002-01-2805
The mixture preparation and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions behaviors for a single-cylinder port-fuel-injection SI engine were examined in an engine/dynamometer set up that simulated the first cycle of cranking. The engine was motored continuously at a fixed low speed with the ignition on, and fuel was injected every 8 cycles. Unlike the real engine cranking process, the set up provided a well controlled and repeatable environment to study the cranking process. The parameters were the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT), speed, and the fuel injection pulse width. The in-cylinder and exhaust HC were measured simultaneously with two Fast-response Flame Ionization Detectors. A large amount of injected fuel (an order of magnitude larger than the normal amount that would produce a stoichiometric mixture in a warm-up engine) was required to form a combustible mixture at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3587
The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Cam Phasing on First Cycle Fuel Delivery and HC Emissions in an SI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1852
A strategy to facilitate the mixture preparation process in PFI engines is to delay the Intake Valve Opening (IVO) by shifting the cam phasing so that the cylinder pressure is sub-atmospheric when the valve opens. The physics of the effect are discussed in terms of the pressure differential between the manifold and the cylinder, and the resulting flow and charge temperature history. The effect was evaluated by measuring the equivalence ratio of the trapped charge and the exhaust HC emissions in the first cycle of cranking in a 2.4L engine. When the IVO timing was changed from 18° BTDC to 21° ATDC, the in-cylinder fuel equivalence ratio increased by approximately 10%. This increase was attributed mainly to the enrichment of the charge by displacing the leaner mixture at the top of the cylinder in the period between BDC and IVC. The exhaust HC, however, increased by 40%. No conclusive explanation was established for this increase in HC emissions.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in Spark-Ignition Engines

1993-10-01
932708
This paper provides an overview of spark-ignition engine unburned hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, and then uses this framework to relate measured engine-out hydrocarbon emission levels to the processes within the engine from which they result. Typically, spark-ignition engine-out HC levels are 1.5 to 2 percent of the gasoline fuel flow into the engine; about half this amount is unburned fuel and half is partially reacted fuel components. The different mechanisms by which hydrocarbons in the gasoline escape burning during the normal engine combustion process are described and approximately quantified. The in-cylinder oxidation of these HC during the expansion and exhaust processes, the fraction which exit the cylinder, and the fraction oxidized in the exhaust port and manifold are also estimated.
Journal Article

SI Engine Control in the Cold-Fast-Idle Period for Low HC Emissions and Fast Catalyst Light Off

2014-04-01
2014-01-1366
The engine and its exhaust flow behaviors are investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine under simulated cold-fast-idle condition. The metrics of interest are the exhaust sensible and chemical enthalpy flows, and the exhaust temperature, all of which affect catalyst light off time. The exhaust sensible enthalpy flow is mainly a function of combustion phasing; the exhaust chemical enthalpy flow is mainly a function of equivalence ratio. High sensible and chemical enthalpy flow with acceptable engine stability could be obtained with retarded combustion and enrichment. When split injection is employed with one early and one later and smaller fuel pulse, combustion retards with early secondary injection in the compression stroke but advances with late secondary injection. Comparing gasoline to E85, the latter produces a lower exhaust temperature because of charge cooling effect and because of a faster combustion.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1368
Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
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