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Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-0204
The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings for High Output Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1442
Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are perceived as enabling technology to increase low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine performance and improve its longevity. The state of the art of thermal barrier coating is the plasma spray zirconia. In addition, other material systems have been investigated for the next generation of thermal barrier coatings. The purpose of this TBC program is to focus on developing binder systems with low thermal conductivity materials to improve the coating durability under high load and temperature cyclical conditions encountered in the real engine. Research and development (R&D) and analysis were conducted on aluminum alloy piston for high output turbocharged diesel engine coated with TBC.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Tribological Parameters between Piston Rings and Liner in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1440
This paper presents tribological modeling, experimental work, and validation of tribology parameters of a single cylinder turbocharged diesel engine run at various loads, speeds, intake boost pressures, and cylinder liner temperatures. Analysis were made on piston rings and liner materials, rings mechanical and thermal loads, contact pressure between rings and liner, and lubricant conditions. The engine tribology parameters were measured, and used to validate the engine tribology models. These tribology parameters are: oil film thickness, coefficient of friction between rings and liner, friction force, friction power, friction torque, shear rate, shear stress and wear of the sliding surfaces. In order to measure the oil film thickness between rings and liner, a single cylinder AVL turbocharged diesel engine was instrumented to accept the difference in voltage drop method between rings, oil film, and liner.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Bore Coating for Extreme Operating Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1439
Adiabatics, Inc., with the support of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research & Development Engineering Center (TARDEC) has developed a low cost, durable ceramic composite cylinder bore coating for diesel engines operating under severe conditions. This bore coating is a ceramic composite consisting primarily of Iron Oxide, Iron Titanate and Partially Stabilized Zirconia. It is applied by unique chemical thermal bonding technology developed at Adiabatics, Inc. and is referred to as Low Temperature Iron Titanate (LTIT). This coating has been tested against a wide range of cylinder bore treatments ranging from hard chrome plate to hard Nickel Silicon Carbide (NikaSil) and found to provide a superior sliding wear surface. It is superior because it is compatible against most common piston ring materials and coatings.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Model for Transient Operation of Turbocharged, Common Rail Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1460
The simulation of I.C. Engines operation, especially during transients, requires a fairly accurate estimation of the internal mechanical losses of the engine. The paper presents generic friction models for the main friction components of the engine (piston-ring-liner assembly, bearings and valve train), considering geometry of the engine parts and peculiarities of the corresponding lubrication processes. Separate models for the mechanical losses introduced by the injection system, oil and water pumps are also developed. All models are implemented as SIMULINK modules in a complex engine simulation code developed in SIMULINK and capable to simulate both steady state and transient operating conditions. Validation is achieved by comparison with measurements made on a four cylinder, common rail diesel engine, on a test bench capable to run controlled transients.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3609
Natural gas quality, in terms of the volume fraction of higher hydrocarbons, strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of the air-fuel mixture, the engine performance and its controllability. The influence of natural gas composition on engine operation has been investigated both experimentally and through chemical kinetic based cycle simulation. A range of two component gas mixtures has been tested with methane as the base fuel. The equivalence ratio (0.3), the compression ratio (19.8), and the engine speed (1000 rpm) were held constant in order to isolate the impact of fuel autoignition chemistry. For each fuel mixture, the start of combustion was phased near top dead center (TDC) and then the inlet mixture temperature was reduced. These experimental results have been utilized as a source of data for the validation of a chemical kinetic based full-cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

2007-04-16
2007-01-0905
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Cold-Start Control Strategy for a Diesel Engine with Common Rail Fuel System at Different Ambient Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-0933
A new tool has been used to arrive at appropriate split injection strategy for reducing the cranking period during the cold start of a multi-cylinder engine at decreasing ambient temperatures. The concept behind this tool is that the combination of different injection parameters that produce the highest IMEP should be able to improve the cold startability of the diesel engine. In this work the following injection parameters were considered: 1) injection timing, 2) split injection fraction, 3) dwell time and 4) total fuel mass injected per cycle. A commercial engine cyclic simulation code has been modified for diesel engine cycle simulation at lower ambient temperatures. The code was used to develop IMEP control maps. The maps were used to identify the parameters that would give the best IMEP. The strategies that have been identified have been validated experimentally in a multi-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Lower Temperature Limits for Cold Starting of Diesel Engine with a Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0934
One of the most challenging problems in diesel engines is to reduce unburned HC emissions that appear as (white smoke) during cold starting. In this paper the research is carried out on a 4-cylinder diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system, which is able to deliver multiple injections during cold start. The causes of combustion failure at lower temperature limits are investigated theoretically by considering the rate of heat release. The results of this clearly indicate that in addition to low cranking engine speed, heat transfer and blow-by losses at lower ambient temperatures, fuel injection events would contribute to the failure of combustion. Also, combustion failure takes place when the compression temperature is lower than some critical value. Based on these results, split-main injection strategy was applied during engine cold starting and validated by experiments in a cold room at lower ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Investigation in Measuring Crank Angle Resolved In-Cylinder Engine Friction Using Instantaneous IMEP Method

2007-10-29
2007-01-3989
This paper describes the measurement of in-cylinder engine friction using the instantaneous IMEP method. This method has been applied to measure in-cylinder friction force in a modern, low friction design production spark ignited engine. An improved mechanical telemetry system has been developed to implement this method. The telemetry system continues to provide excellent data even after 50+ hours of operation at speeds as high as 2000 rpm. Investigated in this study were the primary sources of error associated with this technique. Also presented are the steps taken to minimize the effects of these errors. The refined technique has been subsequently used to obtain piston assembly friction data for both motoring and a limited number of firing cases. The effects of design parameters and operating conditions were investigated.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Modeling the Effects of Gas Exchange Processes on HCCI Combustion and Its Application in Evaluating Variable Valve Timing Control Strategies

2002-10-21
2002-01-2829
The present study introduces a modeling approach for investigating the effects of valve events and gas exchange processes in the framework of a full-cycle HCCI engine simulation. A multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code, KIVA-3V, is used to simulate exhaust, intake and compression up to a transition point, before which chemical reactions become important. The results are then used to initialize the zones of a multi-zone, thermo-kinetic code, which computes the combustion event and part of the expansion. After the description and the validation of the model against experimental data, the application of the method is illustrated in the context of variable valve actuation. It has been shown that early exhaust valve closing, accompanied by late intake valve opening, has the potential to provide effective control of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Autoignition, Combustion, Regulated Emissions and Aldehydes in DI Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1153
In view of the new regulations for diesel engine emissions, EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions. Diluting the charge with EGR affects the autoignition, combustion as well as the regulated and unregulated emissions of diesel engines, under different operating conditions. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of EGR on the global activation energy and order of the autoignition reactions, premixed and mixing-controlled combustion fractions, the regulated (unburned hydrocarbons, NOx, CO and particulates), aldehydes, CO2 and HC speciation. The experiments were conducted on two different direct injection, four-stroke-cycle, single-cylinder diesel engines over a wide range of operating conditions and EGR ratios.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of NO and Soot Emissions with Detailed Chemistry and Mixing in a Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1112
This work reports the development and application of multi-dimensional ignition, combustion and emissions models that account for detailed chemistry and mixing effects in a direct injection engine simulation. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism, consisting of 24 species and 104 reactions, is used for increased accuracy of emissions predictions. Turbulent combustion is represented using a modified Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model to account for mixing effects. The soot model includes all aspects of soot formation and destruction. Particle transport equations are used to realistically track transport of the soot particles formed. All computational sub-models developed in this work have been implemented in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code. In order to illustrate the behavior of the new models, soot and NO emissions have been predicted at different operating conditions by varying injection timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on the Friction and Emissions of a Light-Duty, 2.2L Direct - Injection - Diesel Engine Part 1 - Engine Test Results

2002-10-21
2002-01-2681
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and engine-out emissions in a light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine were investigated. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity (SAE 5W-20 to 10W-40), friction modifier (FM) level and chemistry (MoDTC and organic FM), and basestock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Tests were run in an engine dynamometer according to a simulated, steady state FTP-75 procedure. Low viscosity oils and high levels of organic FM showed benefits in terms of fuel economy, but there were no significant effects observed with the oils with low MoDTC concentration on engine friction run in this program. No significant oil effects were observed on the gaseous emissions of the engine. PM emissions were analyzed for organic solubles and insolubles. The organic soluble fraction was further analyzed for the oil and fuel soluble portions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Dynamics and Friction in Valve Train Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0484
The paper analyses the friction in the valve train of an internal combustion engine trying to separate the contribution of the different components to the total friction losses in the valve train. The measurements are performed on a running engine in order to avoid extraneous factors introduced by simulating rigs. The experimental engine is instrumented with strain gauge bridges on the rocker arm, the push rod and the camshaft to measure forces and moments acting on these components. Original techniques are developed to isolate and determine the friction forces between the valve stem and its guide, the friction force in the rocker arm bearing and the combined friction between cam/tappet and tappet/bore. It was found that the friction in the rocker arm bearing never reaches hydrodynamic conditions and that the friction coefficient between cam and tappet reduces with an increase in the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Start Combustion Instability and Control Strategy

2001-03-05
2001-01-1237
Combustion instability and white smoke emissions are serious problems during cold starting of diesel engines. In this investigation, a model has been applied to predict misfiring based on an analysis of the autoignition process. The effect of injection timing on combustion instability during the cold start transient, at different ambient temperatures is investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. Maps have been developed to show the zones where misfiring would occur. The experimental work was conducted on a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine in a cold room. The room temperature covered a range from 21 ° C to -10 ° C. The cycle-by-cycle data analysis was made and results plotted on the developed maps. The experimental results correlated fairly well with the model prediction. Based on the analysis, a new strategy for cold starting can be developed to reduce combustion instability and white smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

The Reverse Engineering of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through a Unified Systems Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-1244
The need for a rigorous systems engineering approach to automotive powertrains has been addressed in this work from the perspective of the diesel engine. A high-fidelity engine simulation has been integrated with a total vehicle model for the purpose of reverse engineering the optimal powerplant for a given vehicle mission. Engine parameters have been coordinated between the simulations to develop a framework for total vehicle design. The design strategies discussed in this paper allow engine researchers to set targets for individual system components and to analyze the tradeoffs associated with different vehicle mission objectives. A detailed case study employing these techniques is presented for a conventional vehicle where the most fuel-efficient engine is found that simultaneously conforms to the desired performance criteria.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
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