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Technical Paper

A Quantitative Assessment Framework for Model Quality Evaluation of 3D Scene under Simulation Platform

2014-04-01
2014-01-0177
Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (Vi-ADAS) has achieved rapid growth in recent years. Since vehicle field testing under various driving scenarios can be costly, tedious, unrepeatable, and often dangerous, simulation has thus become an effective means that reduces or partially replaces the conventional field testing in the early development stage. This paper proposes a quantitative assessment framework for model quality evaluation of 3D scene under simulation platform. An imaging model is first built. The problem of solving the imaging model is then transformed into the problem of intrinsic image decomposition. Based on Retinex theory and Non-local texture analyses, a superior intrinsic image decomposition method is adopted to evaluate the fidelity of the 3D scene model through the degree of deviation to the Reflectance and Shading intrinsic maps respectively.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Virtual Simulation Environment for Advanced Driver Assistance System Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0194
This paper presents a novel real-time virtual simulation environment for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation and experiment have been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of ADAS systems.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Automatic Test of AEB with Brake System in the Loop

2018-04-03
2018-01-1450
The limitation of drivers' attention and perception may bring collision dangers, Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) can help drivers to avoid the potential collisions through active braking. Since the positive effect of it, motor corporations have begun to equip their vehicles with the system, and regulatory agencies in various countries have introduced test standards. At this stage, the actuator of AEB usually adopts Electronic Stability Program (ESP), but it poor performance of continuous working period and active pressure built-up for all wheels limits its implements. Electromechanical brake booster can realize power assisted brake without relying on the vacuum source and a variety of specific power curves. Moreover it can achieve the active braking with a rapid response, which make it can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Integrated Threat Assessment for Trajectory Planning of Intelligent Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0153
This paper reports an effort to improve plan of vehicle trajectory using an approach with rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT), which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. Design and implement of an integrated threat assessment is presented that evaluates threats of the trajectory. A node and trajectory evaluation index was introduced into the proposed RRT algorithm to connect an appropriate node and select the best trajectory. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
Technical Paper

Research on a Novel Electro-Hydraulic Brake System and Pressure Control Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0764
Based on the research and analysis of the current brake systems, this paper presents a novel electro-hydraulic brake system, which can better meet the functional requirements. The system mainly contains a master cylinder, two brake hydraulic cylinders and drive motors, two transmission mechanisms, thirteen solenoid valves, pedal force simulator, etc. Since the proposed brake system uses a dual motor along with two brake hydraulic cylinders, it has advantages in providing fast pressure response, flexible working modes, high precision and strong fault tolerance. In order to facilitate the study of pressure control algorithm for the proposed brake system, a mathematical model of the brake system is firstly established, then a multiplexed time-division pressure control algorithm is proposed to realize the simultaneous or partially simultaneous pressure control, which ensures the high precision and short response time.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Research on the Classification and Identification for Personalized Driving Styles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1096
Most of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications are aiming at improving both driving safety and comfort. Understanding human drivers' driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system performance, in particular, the acceptance and adaption of ADAS to human drivers. The research presented in this paper focuses on the classification and identification for personalized driving styles. To motivate and reflect the information of different driving styles at the most extent, two sets, which consist of six kinds of stimuli with stochastic disturbance for the leading vehicles are created on a real-time Driver-In-the-Loop Intelligent Simulation Platform (DILISP) with PanoSim-RT®, dSPACE® and DEWETRON® and field test with both RT3000 family and RT-Range respectively.
Technical Paper

Studies on Brake Pedal Feeling Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

2016-04-05
2016-01-0014
Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-Trailer Handling Dynamics and Stability Control ─ an Engineering Review

2007-04-16
2007-01-0822
This paper presented an engineering review on the state of the art in the research and development of vehicle-trailer handling dynamics and stability controls. The issues and potential technical solutions were identified in various areas and the unique characteristics of vehicle-trailer as a combined system were investigated and compared to a single-unit vehicle system. Many approaches taken in modeling, analysis, simulation and testing were examined, and various control methods, actuations and control implementations were evaluated. As a result of this study, further research areas were also identified. While it is important to maintain the stability of a trailer, thus the stability of a vehicle-trailer combination, it remains one of the major challenges in designing an appropriate control law to balance effectively the requirements between stability and handling performance, which often set conflicting objectives.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis and Simulation Study of Automobile Millimeter Wave Radar Noise

2018-08-07
2018-01-1641
The paper analyzes the mechanism of automobile millimeter wave radar noise, this paper does not study radar noise from the angle of signal processing, but from the level of false detection and missed detection, at the same time, the noise mechanism is modeled and verified. Firstly, the purpose and significance of the research of radar vehicle noise are described, and then, we summarize and outline the macro phenomenon and the specific characteristics of the automobile millimeter wave radar noise.
Technical Paper

Trajectory-Tracking Control for Autonomous Driving Considering Its Stability with ESP

2018-08-07
2018-01-1639
With rapid increase of vehicles on the road, safety concerns have become increasingly prominent. Since the leading cause of many traffic accidents is known to be by human drivers, developing autonomous vehicles is considered to be an effective approach to solve the problems above. Although trajectory tracking plays one of the most important roles on autonomous driving, handling the coupling between trajectory-tracking control and ESP under certain driving scenarios remains to be challenging. This paper focuses on trajectory-tracking control considering the role of ESP. A vehicle model is developed with two degrees of freedom, including vehicle lateral, and yaw motions. Based on the proposed model, the vehicle trajectory is separated into both longitudinal and lateral motion. The coupling effect of the vehicle and ESP is analyzed in the paper. The lateral trajectory-tracking algorithm is developed based on the preview follower theory.
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling Method on Ultrasonic Sensors for Virtual Intelligent Driving

2016-09-14
2016-01-1901
Environmental sensing and perception is one of the key technologies on intelligent driving or autonomous vehicles. As a complementary part to current radar and lidar sensors, ultrasonic sensor has become more and more popular due to its high value to the cost. Different from other sensors mainly based on propagation of electromagnetic wave, ultrasonic sensor possesses some unique features and physical characteristics that bring many merits to autonomous vehicle research, like transparent obstacles and highly reflective surfaces detection. Its low-cost property can further bring down hardware cost to foster widespread use of intelligent driving or autonomous vehicles. To accelerate the development of autonomous vehicle, this paper proposes a high fidelity ultrasonic sensor model based on its physical characteristics, including obstacle detection, distance measurement and signal attenuation.
Technical Paper

LiDAR Sensor Modeling for ADAS Applications under a Virtual Driving Environment

2016-09-14
2016-01-1907
LiDAR sensors have played more and more important role on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICV) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) .However, the development and testing of LiDAR sensors under real driving environment for ADAS applications are greatly limited by various factors, and often are impossible due to safety concerns. This paper proposed a novel functional LiDAR model under virtual driving environment to support development of LiDAR-based ADAS applications under early stage. Unlike traditional approaches on LiDAR sensor modeling, the proposed method includes both geometrical modeling approach and physical modeling approach. While geometric model mainly produces ideal scanning results based on computer graphics, the physical model further brings physical influences on top of the geometric model. The range detection is derived and optimized based on its physical detection and measurement mechanism.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Chassis Control for Vehicle-Trailer Stability and Handling Performance

2004-05-04
2004-01-2046
To cope with the conflict requirements between the stability and handling performance, and the high-order and complex vehicle-trailer plant, a model tracking method is proposed. With this approach, a feedback control is designed to “decouple” the vehicle and the trailer plant, such that each tracks a well-defined second-order reference model independently yet coordinately. A feedforward control is designed to maintain its system steady-state performance. As a result, the proposed approach not only improves the system transient responses, but also its steady-state performance. This approach further yields a simple yet analytical control derivation that provides more insight to the system dynamics.
Journal Article

A Novel Method of Radar Modeling for Vehicle Intelligence

2016-09-14
2016-01-1892
The conventional radar modeling methods for automotive applications were either function-based or physics-based. The former approach was mainly abstracted as a solution of the intersection between geometric representations of radar beam and targets, while the latter one took radar detection mechanism into consideration by means of “ray tracing”. Although they each has its unique advantages, they were often unrealistic or time-consuming to meet actual simulation requirements. This paper presents a combined geometric and physical modeling method on millimeter-wave radar systems for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) modulation format under a 3D simulation environment. With the geometric approach, a link between the virtual radar and 3D environment is established. With the physical approach, on the other hand, the ideal target detection and measurement are contaminated with noise and clutters aimed to produce the signals as close to the real ones as possible.
Journal Article

Network Scheduling for Distributed Controls of Electric Vehicles Considering Actuator Dynamic Characteristics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0019
Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
Journal Article

Evaluation and Design of Electric/Electronic-Architectures of the Electric Vehicle

2016-06-17
2016-01-9143
The evaluation of electric vehicle electric/electronic-architectures (e/e-architectures) is the main topic of this paper. The electric vehicle is chosen as an example system, as it reflects the typical challenges of modern vehicle e/e-architecture development. The development of modern automotive technology also presents another important trend - vehicle electrification. New electric and electronic devices are developed and required in the automotive industry and control commands are exchanged by electric and electronic ones. The energy storage systems (ESS) properly reflect the above two aspects. The energy storage device also takes care of the peak loads, the high load dynamics, and it utilizes the braking energy in order to increase the efficiency. In this work a Li-ion battery and an ultracapacitor both are considered as energy storage devices.
Journal Article

Function-Based Architecture Design for Next-Generation Automotive Brake Controls

2016-04-05
2016-01-0467
This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
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