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Technical Paper

HEAVY DUTY VEHICLE EXHAUST PLUME STUDY IN THE NASA/LANGLEY WIND TUNNEL

2003-05-19
2003-01-1895
Concern over health effects associated with diesel exhaust and debate over the influence of high number counts of particles in diesel exhaust prompted research to develop a methodology for diesel particulate matter (PM) characterization. As part of this program, a tractor truck with an electronically managed diesel engine and a dynamometer were installed in the Old Dominion University (ODU) Langley full-scale wind tunnel. This arrangement permitted repeat measurements of diesel exhaust under realistic and reproducible conditions and permitted examination of the steady exhaust plume at multiple points. Background particle size distribution was characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). In addition, a remote sampling system consisting of a SMPS, PM filter arrangement, and carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer, was attached to a roving gantry allowing for exhaust plume sampling in a three dimensional grid. Raw exhaust CO2 levels and truck performance data were also measured.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Southern California

2003-05-19
2003-01-1901
Few real-world data exist to describe the contribution of diesel vehicles to the emissions inventory, although it is widely acknowledged that diesel vehicles are a significant contributor to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in Southern California. New data were acquired during the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, designed to collect emissions data for source profiling of PM emissions from diesel- and gasoline-powered engines in the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin in 2001. Regulated gases, PM and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured from 34 diesel vehicles operating in the Southern California area. Two were transit buses, 16 were trucks over 33,000 lbs. in weight, 8 were 14,001 lbs. to 33,000 lbs. in weight and 8 were under 14,001 lbs. in weight. The vehicles were also grouped by model year for recruiting and data analysis.
Technical Paper

Use of the West Virginia University Truck Test Cycle to Evaluate Emissions from Class 8 Trucks

1995-02-01
951016
Emissions from light duty vehicles have traditionally been measured using a chassis dynamometer, while heavy duty testing has been based on engine dynamometers. However, the need for in-use vehicle emissions data has led to the development of two transportable heavy duty chassis dynamometers capable of testing buses and heavy trucks. A test cycle has been developed for Class 8 trucks, which typically have unsyncronized transmissions. This test cycle has five peaks, each consisting of an acceleration, cruise period, and deceleration, with speeds and acceleration requirements that can be met by virtually all vehicles in common service. Termed the “WVU 5 peak truck test”, this 8 km (5 mile) cycle has been used to evaluate the emissions from diesel and ethanol powered over-the-road tractors and from diesel and ethanol powered snow plows, all with Detroit Diesel 6V92 engines.
Technical Paper

Chassis Test Cycles for Assessing Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks

1994-10-01
941946
Recent interest in the effect of engine life on vehicle emissions, particularly those from alternately fueled engines, has led to a need to test heavy duty trucks in the field over their lifetime. West Virginia University has constructed two transportable laboratories capable of measuring emissions as a vehicle is driven through a transient test schedule. Although the central business district (CBD) cycle is well accepted for bus testing, no time-based schedule suited to the testing of class 8 trucks with unsynchronized transmissions is available. The Federal Test Procedure for certifying heavy duty engines can be translated with some difficulty into a flat road chassis cycle although original data clearly incorporated unpredictable braking and inclines. Two methods were attempted for this purpose, but only an energy conservation method proved practical.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements from Trucks and Buses using Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3525
Emissions from trucks and buses equipped with Caterpillar dual-fuel natural gas (DFNG) engines were measured at two chassis dynamometer facilities: the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Laboratory and the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA MTA). Emissions were measured over four different driving cycles. The average emissions from the trucks and buses using DFNG engines operating in dual-fuel mode showed the same trends in all tests - reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions - when compared to similar diesel trucks and buses. The extent of NOx reduction was dependent on the type of test cycle used.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: Regulated Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2815
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Technical Paper

Creation and Evaluation of a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck Test Cycle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3284
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) developed a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck (MHDT) schedule by selecting and joining microtrips from real-world MHDT. The MHDT consisted of three modes; namely, a Lower Speed Transient, a Higher Speed Transient, and a Cruise mode. The maximum speeds of these modes were 28.9, 58.2 and 66.0 mph, respectively. Each mode represented statistically selected truck behavior patterns in California. The MHDT is intended to be applied to emissions characterization of trucks (14,001 to 33,000lb gross vehicle weight) exercised on a chassis dynamometer. This paper presents the creation of the MHDT and an examination of repeatability of emissions data from MHDT driven through this schedule. Two trucks were procured to acquire data using the MHDT schedule. The first, a GMC truck with an 8.2-liter Isuzu engine and a standard transmission, was tested at laden weight (90% GVW, 17,550lb) and at unladen weight (50% GVW, 9,750lb).
Technical Paper

Examination of a Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Chassis Dynamometer Schedule

2004-10-25
2004-01-2904
Repeatable measurement of real-world heavy-duty diesel truck emissions requires the use of a chassis dynamometer with a test schedule that reasonably represents actual truck use. A new Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) schedule has been created that consists of four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise. The effect of driving style on emissions from the Transient Mode was studied by driving a 400 hp Mack tractor at 56,000 lbs. test weight in fashions termed “Medium”, “Good”, “Bad”, “Casual” and “Aggressive”. Although there were noticeable differences in the actual speed vs. time trace for these five styles, emissions of the important species oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), varied little with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 5.13% on NOX and 10.68% on PM. Typical NOx values for the HHDDT Transient mode ranged from 19.9 g/mile to 22.75 g/mile. The Transient mode which was the most difficult mode to drive, proved to be repeatable.
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