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Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Color Variable Speed Limit Sign Visibility for the Freeway Exit Driving Safety

Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the freeway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more response time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The freeway exit speed limit sign (ESLS) is an effect way to remind the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the color variable ESLS system, which is placed at the same location with the traditional speed limit sign. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit recommendation in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change over the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles. The vehicle braking characteristics with various initial speeds in the deceleration area are studied.
Technical Paper

Over-the-Horizon Safety Speed Warning System for Heavy-Duty Vehicle in Mountain Areas

The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

The Tunnel Climbing Acceleration Reminder System Based on Vehicle Dynamics

Road traffic congestion sometimes happens at tunnel exit even without high traffic flow. One reason is that the deceleration process is imperceptible when the vehicle is driving to the tunnel exit with gradual upgrade slopes. Nowadays regulations are more concentrated in transport sectors, and control measures are applied to vehicles through the tunnel. This process is careless of vehicles’ specific characteristics and easily distract the driver attention. In this paper, a tunnel climbing acceleration reminder system is introduced. When the speed drop is detected and the analysis show this is due to the driver's unconscious behavior, the system will remind the driver to speed up. Based on the dynamic model and the tunnel properties, the relationship between the throttle opening degrees and the duration with the speed change is studied. Then, the engine braking is considered for the variation of speeds and slopes.
Technical Paper

Safe Travelling Speed of Commercial Vehicles on Curves Based on Vehicle-Road Collaboration

Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Technical Paper

Research on Road Simulator with Iterative Learning Control

Road simulation experiment in laboratory is a most important method to enhance the design quality of vehicle products. Presently, two main control techniques for road simulation—remote parameter control (RPC) and minimum variance adaptive control—are both defective: the former becomes an open-loop control after generating the drive signals, however the latter is essentially a kind of gradual control. To realize the closed-loop control and increase the control quality, this article brings forward a PID open-closed loop control method. Firstly taking the original road simulator as a group to identify, a nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model was built with the dynamic neural network. Subsequently, this plant model was used to build the open-closed loop control system mentioned above. In the closed-loop a discrete PID controller was introduced to stabilize the system, while a P-type iterative learning control (ILC) was adopted to increase the control quality.
Technical Paper

The Shock Absorber of Energy Recovery Using Electrorheological Fluid

When vehicle traveling on the bumpy road or vehicle acceleration and deceleration, which will cause the body vibration of vehicle, at the same time, a large part of energy would be absorbed by the shock absorber transforms the mechanical energy into heat energy dissipated. In order to recycle the energy of vibration and keep the stability of running car, this paper provides the shock absorber of energy recovery that recycling the energy dissipated from the traditional absorber. The shock absorber includes rod and rodless chamber cavity, the two parts contain oil outlet and oil inlet, which connected to a bridge type loop of hydraulic to make pulsating oil pressure towards one direction, when the shock absorber vibration causes pulsating oil pressure, it drives hydraulic pump operation. Because the output shaft of the hydraulic pump fixedly attached to the input shaft of generator, so the generator produces electricity for recycling energy[1].
Technical Paper

A Study on Safety Intelligent Driving System for Heavy Truck Downhill in Mountainous Area

Mountainous area makes up more than half of the whole land area of China, the road of which is full of ups and downs. Heavy commercial vehicles as the main means of transport in mountainous areas, braking torque recession, even brake failure, often happens because of the overheating in long downhill journey, which seriously threatens the safety of the driving. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent assistance system based on Geographic Information System and vehicle dynamics. The main brake duration and heat generation can be effectively reduced through adjusting the speed at the slope top, applying the engine auxiliary brake in the initial stage and choosing braking strategy appropriately, in order to prolong the downhill driving distance and improve the safety during continuous braking. This paper characterizes and analyses the road gradients and their effects on braking heat generation.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Adaptive Front Lighting System Based on GIS and GPS

Automotive Front Lighting System(AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicular speed signal to adjust the position of headlamps automatically. AFS will provide drivers more information of front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go through a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. This paper studied how to optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS(Geographic Information System) to solve the problem. This paper analyzed the process of the vehicle is about to go through a corner. Low beams and high beams were discussed respectively.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber

The current paper proposes a hydraulic interconnected suspension system (HIS) based on a hydraulic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) comparatively with the passive suspensions. The structure and working principles of the HIS system are introduced in order to investigate the damping performance and energy regeneration characteristics of the proposed system. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the HIS-HESA system have been investigated based on a 4-DOF longitudinal half vehicle model. In the simulation, two different road inputs were used in the dynamic characterization of the HIS-HESA; the warp sinusoidal excitation, and the random road signal. In addition, a comparative analysis was provided for the dynamic responses of the half vehicle model for both the HIS-HESA and the conventional suspension. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of the HIS-HESA has been carried out highlining the key parameters that have a remarkable effect on the HIS-HESA performance.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on Vehicle Road Performance with Hydraulic Electromagnetic Energy-Regenerative Shock Absorber

This paper presents a novel application of hydraulic electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) into commercial vehicle suspension system and vehicle road performance are simulated by the evaluating indexes (e.g. root-mean-square values of vertical acceleration of sprung mass, dynamic tire-ground contact force, suspension deflection and harvested power; maximum values of pitch angle and roll angle). Firstly, the configuration and working principle of HESA are introduced. Then, the damping characteristics of HESA and the seven-degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics were modeled respectively before deriving the dynamic characteristics of a vehicle equipped with HESA. The control current is fixed at 7A to match the similar damping effect of traditional damper on the basis of energy conversion method of nonlinear shock absorber.
Technical Paper

Microwave-Steam Based Road Deicing Vehicle Focused on Thin Ice Layers

For the thin ice on the road in winter, the traditional road deicing vehicle relies on mechanical and chemical methods for melting ice, which is inclined to damage the pavement and has insidious influence on environment. The thermal deicing vehicle has been adopted in recent years. Although the deicing method is available, the deicing efficiency is unacceptable while the energy consumption is huge. The study adopts the new idea of “bottom-to-top” for melting the intersection area between the road surface and the bottom ice layer by the microwave heating firstly and then cleaning them out using high pres. vapor cutting so as to save the cost of energy and enhance the traffic safety. First of all, the mathematical model of the melting process of the intersection of the pavement and the ice layer was established according to the microwave heating characteristics.
Technical Paper

Robust Model Predictive Control for Path Tracking of Autonomous Vehicle

Path tracking is one of the critical technologies in the autonomous vehicle. Its performance may be seriously affected by disturbance resulting from unpredictable environment like changes in road friction coefficient and parameter uncertainty such as cornering stiffness and mass caused by errors of measurement. Besides, since the vehicle system consisting of many systems is an extremely complex nonlinear system, it is almost impossible for us to establish a precise model of a vehicle especially when it is moving. These inevitable factors influence the control accuracy and even threaten the stability and safety of the vehicle system. This paper proposed a promising solution to this problem, robust MPC (Model Predictive Control) combined with the optimal preview controller for path tracking problems of an autonomous vehicle. The state space model in tracking error variables of a passenger vehicle used for path tracking application is established.