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Technical Paper

Effect of the Ratio Between Connecting-rod Length and Crank Radius on Thermal Efficiency

In reciprocating internal combustion engines, the Otto cycle indicates the best thermal efficiency under a given compression ratio. To achieve an ideal Otto cycle, combustion must take place instantaneously at top dead center, but in fact, this is impossible. Meanwhile, if we allow slower piston motion around top dead center, combustion will be promoted at that period; then both the in-cylinder pressure and degree of constant volume will increase, leading to higher thermal efficiency. In order to verify this hypothesis, an engine with slower piston motion around top dead center, using an ideal constant volume combustion engine, was built and tested. As anticipated, the degree of constant volume increased. However, thermal efficiency was not improved, due to increased heat loss.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Breakup Modeling of a Diesel Spray by Making Comparisons with 2D Measurement Data

In this study, the characteristics of diesel spray droplets, such as the velocity and the diameter were simultaneously measured by using an improved ILIDS (Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing) method on a 2D plane to evaluate the droplet breakup modeling. In numerical analysis, DDM (Discrete Droplet Model) was employed with sub-models such as droplet breakup, droplet drag force and turbulence. Experiments have been performed with an accumulator type unit-injector system and a constant-volume high-pressure vessel under the condition of quiescent ambient gas. The injection pressure and ambient gas pressure were set up to 100 MPa and 0.1 / 1 MPa, respectively. The nozzle orifice diameter was 0.244 mm with a single hole. The measurement region was chosen at 40 ∼ 60 mm from the nozzle-tip. Numerical analysis of diesel sprays was conducted and the results were compared to the measured results.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Using Spark Ignition and Pilot Flame Ignition Systems

A Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (DISC-RE) with a pilot flame ignition system which has high ignition energy, large flame contact area and long duration of ignition source, has been examined comparing with a spark ignition system, using a model combustion chamber simulating a DISC-RE. As a result, it was found that the combustion using the pilot flame ignition system was activated and that a better ignitability was attained under lean mixture conditions than using a spark ignition system. To analyze these experimental results, numerical calculations of the mixture formation and combustion process were carried out. Numerical analyses proved that the pilot flame ignition system was superior to the spark ignition system as the pilot flame ignition made large-area ignition source and large inflammable mixture region. Finally, a single rotor with 650 cc displacement DISC-RE was built as a prototype.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a Reverse Uniflow-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

A reverse uniflow-type two-stroke gasoline direct injection engine, which has potentials of high power weight ratio, high thermal efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions, has been developed and tested. In this study, one of the features of this engine: very low cycle-to-cycle combustion variation at idling condition, is focused to clarify the reasons. To achieve this, a transparent cylinder model engine was designed and built to visualize the in-cylinder mixture formation process, and the free spray characteristics of a swirl-type injector were examined using a large chamber with changing the injection pressure, environmental gas pressure, and the gas temperature. As a result, the reasons of stable idling operation were deduced.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process with a Swirl-Type Injector

A swirl-type injector is commonly used for the gasoline direct injection IC engines. To control and optimize the engine combustion, analyses of mixture formation process inside the cylinder are quite important. In this study, an evaluation of a DDM (Discrete Droplet Model) including breakup and evaporation sub-models has been made by making comparisons between the calculation and measurement. In the calculation, two kinds of initial conditions were tested; one was from empirical expressions and the other was from calculated results using a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) model that had a feature to examine the free fluid surface of a liquid fuel spray. As a result, the authors have found that a DDM can basically explain the spray formation process. However, much further modification of the breakup model and initial conditions would be required to have a quantitatively good agreement between the calculation and measurement
Technical Paper

A Study on New Combustion Method of High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine

A new combustion method of high compression ratio SI engine was studied and proposed in order to achieve higher thermal efficiency of SI engine comparable to that of CI engine. Compression ratio of SI engine is generally restricted by the knocking phenomena. A combustion chamber profile and a cranking mechanism are studied to avoid knocking with high compression ratio. Since reducing the end-gas temperature will suppress knocking, a combustion chamber was considered to have a wide surface at the end-gas region. However, wide surface will lead to high heat loss, which may cancel the gain of higher compression ratio operation. Thereby, a special cranking mechanism was adopted which allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the cranking mechanism for achieving higher thermal efficiency. An elliptic gear system and a leaf-shape gear system were employed in the simulations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Ignition System Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges: Ignition Characteristics of Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Mixtures

A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with static induction thyristor at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IEC circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. In this paper, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems. The experiments were conducted using spherically expanding flame configuration for CH4 and C3H8-air mixtures under various conditions. In conclusions, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to extend lean flammability limits compared with conventional spark ignition systems. In addition, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges could shorten ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion and Flow Inside a Small Rotary Engine for Developing an Unmanned Helicopter

For a disaster relief and automatic inspections, an unmanned helicopter is strongly expected. To develop this, a very high power density source is required. A Wankel-type rotary engine can be the best candidate for the power source. In this study, the development of a very small rotary engine with a displacement of 30 cc is targeted. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, gas exchange and stable ignition, a multi dimensional simulation inside the combustion chamber was carried out. At first, the effect of volumetric efficiency on the maximum power is mentioned. Secondly, the effect of scavenging efficiency is discussed. Thirdly, a blow off through a plug hole is described. The position of plug hole was found important to reduce the blow off amount. Finally, the effect of combustion speed on the engine performance is predicted. As a result, the proposed design will be tested using a proto-type engine.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation Analysis of a Schnurle-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

Because the two-stroke gasoline engine has a feature of high power density, it might become a choice for automobiles' power train if the high HC exhaust emissions and high fuel consumption rate could be improved. As the GDI technology is quite effective for two-stroke engines, a Schnurle-type small engine was modified to a GDI engine, and its performance was tested. Also, numerical analysis of the mixture-formation process was carried out. Results indicated it was possible to reduce both the HC emissions and fuel consumption drastically with the same maximum power as a carbureted engine at WOT condition. However, misfiring in light load condition was left unresolved. Numerical analysis clarified the process of how the mixture formation got affected by the injector location, injection timing, and gas motion.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analyses of Mixture Formation Process Using a Fan-shaped DI Gasoline Spray: Examinations on Effects of Crosswind and Wall Impingement

The analysis of spray characteristics is important to examine the combustion characteristics of DI (Direct Injection) gasoline engines because the fuel-air mixture formation is controlled by spray characteristics and in-cylinder gas motion. However, the mixture formation process has not been well clarified yet. In this study, the characteristics of a fan-shaped spray caused from a slit-type injector, such as the droplet size, its velocity and the droplet distribution were simultaneously measured on a 2D plane by using improved ILIDS (Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing) method. ILIDS method is an optical measurement technique using interference fringes by illuminating a transparent spherical particles with a coherent laser light. In the measurement of the wall-impinging spray, effects of the distance to the wall and the wall temperature on the spray characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

The objective of this study is to extend the high load operation limit of a gasoline HCCI engine. A new system extending the high load HCCI operation limit was proposed, and the performance of the system was experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of two new techniques. The first one is the “Blow-down super charging (BDSC) system”, in which, EGR gas can be super charged into a cylinder during the early stage of compression stroke by using the exhaust blow-down pressure wave from another cylinder phased 360 degrees later/earlier in the firing order. The other one is “EGR guide” for generating a large thermal stratification inside the cylinder to reduce the rate of in-cylinder pressure rise (dP/dθ) at high load HCCI operation. The EGR guides consist of a half-circular part attached on the edge of the exhaust ports and the piston head which has a protuberant surface to control the mixing between hot EGR gas and intake air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Extension of Lean and Diluted Combustion Stability Limits by Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges

A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Local Gas Temperature at Autoignition Conditions Inside the Combustion Chamber Using a Two-Wire Thermocouple

The phenomenon of autoignition is an important aspect of HCCI and knock, hence reliable information on local gas temperature in a combustion chamber must be obtained. Recently, several studies have been conducted by using laser techniques such as CARS. It has a high spatial resolution, but has proven difficult to apply in the vicinity of combustion chamber wall and requires special measurement skills. Meanwhile, a thermocouple is useful to measure local gas temperature even in the vicinity of wall. However, a traditional one-wire thermocouple is not adaptable to measure the in-cylinder gas temperature due to slow response. The issue of response can be overcome by adopting a two-wire thermocouple. The two-wire thermocouple is consisted of two fine wire thermocouples with different diameter hence it is possible to determine the time constant using the raw data from each thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle Simulation of a Vehicle with Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using a Low-RON Fuel

An improvement of thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines is strongly required. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of refinery, CO2 emissions and gasoline price decrease when lower octane gasoline can be used for vehicles. If lower octane gasoline is used for current vehicles, fuel consumption rate would increase due to abnormal combustion. However, if a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine were to be used, the effect of octane number on engine performance would be relatively small and it has been revealed that the thermal efficiency is almost unchanged. In this study, the engine performance estimation of HCCI combustion using lower octane gasoline as a vision of the future engine was achieved. To quantitatively investigate the fuel consumption performance of a gasoline HCCI engine using lower octane fuel, the estimation of fuel consumption under different driving test cycles with different transmissions is carried out using 1D engine simulation code.
Technical Paper

Charge Transfer Pathways in Thermalization Process of a Resistive Particulate Matter Sensor

Resistive particulate matter sensor (PMS) is a promising solution for the diagnosis of diesel/gasoline particulate filter (DPF/GPF) functionality. Frequently triggered regeneration of their sensing element, for cleaning the soot dendrites deposited on the surface, leads to experience high temperature and thermal stress and pose high risk of developing cracks in the electrodes or sensing substrate. A semiconductor with a dopant concentration of 100 ppm~10000 ppm is applied as a sensing element for PMS self-diagnosis. Upon cooling at air, the polarization doped-insulating layer in a resistive PMS starts to resume the electrical conductivity in the wake of experiencing high regeneration temperature, through the electron and hole directional mobility.
Technical Paper

0D Modeling of Real-Driving NOx Emissions for a Diesel Passenger Vehicle

NOx emissions from diesel passenger vehicles affect the atmospheric environment. It is difficult to evaluate the NOx emissions influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature, traffic conditions, driving patterns, etc. In the authors’ previous study, real-driving experiments were performed on city and highway routes using a diesel passenger car with only an exhaust gas recirculation system. A statistical prediction model of NOx emissions was considered for simple estimations in the real world using instantaneous vehicle data measured by the portable emissions measurement system and global positioning system. The prediction model consisted of explanatory variables, such as velocity, acceleration, road gradient, and position of transmission gear. Using the explanatory variables, NOx emissions on the city and highway routes was well predicted using a diesel vehicle without NOx reduction devices.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification Using Twin-Tumble Intake Flows to Extend Lean Limit in Super-Lean Gasoline Combustion

To drastically improve thermal efficiency of a gasoline spark-ignited engine, super-lean burn is a promising solution. Although, studies of lean burn have been made by so many researchers, the realization is blocked by a cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. In this study, based on the causes of cycle-to-cycle variation clarified by the authors’ previous study, a unique method to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variation is proposed and evaluated. That is, a bulk quench at early expansion stroke could be reduced by making slight fuel stratification inside the cylinder using the twin-tumble of intake flows. As a result, the lean limit was extended with keeping low NOx and moderate THC emissions, leading to higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixture Distributions on Combustion Characteristics in a HCCI Engine

It has been widely known that thermal and fuel stratifications of in-cylinder mixture are effective to reduce in-cylinder pressure rise rate during high load HCCI operations. In order to optimize a combustion chamber design and combustion control strategy for HCCI engines with wide operational range, it is important to know quantitatively the influence of the temperature and fuel concentration distributions on ignition and heat release characteristics. At the same time, it is important to know the influence of in-cylinder flow and turbulence on the temperature and fuel concentration distributions. In this study, a numerical simulation of HCCI combustion were conducted to investigate the effects of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and the distributions of temperature on ignition and combustion characteristics in HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Water and Intake Air Temperatures on Thermal Efficiency of Gasoline Engines

An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis in a Diesel Engine Based on a Heat Flux Measurement Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.