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Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

2012-06-18
High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60�C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
Technical Paper

Refining Measurement Uncertainties in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-1248
This study presents estimates for measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility. A previously presented framework for quantifying those uncertainties developed uncertainty estimates based on the transducers manufacturers’ published tolerances. The present work utilizes the framework with improved uncertainty estimates in order to more accurately represent the actual uncertainties of the data acquired in the HCCI/LTGC laboratory, which ultimately results in a reduction in the uncertainty from 30 to less than 1 kPa during the intake and exhaust strokes. Details of laboratory calibration techniques and commissioning runs are used to constrain the sensitivities of the transducers relative to manufacturer supplied values.
Technical Paper

Spark Assist for CA50 Control and Improved Robustness in a Premixed LTGC Engine – Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Intake Boost

2018-04-03
2018-01-1252
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can deliver high efficiencies, with ultra-low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, controlling the combustion timing and maintaining robust operation remains a challenge for LTGC engines. One promising technique to overcoming these challenges is spark assist (SA). In this work, well-controlled, fully premixed experiments are performed in a single-cylinder LTGC research engine at 1200 rpm using a cylinder head modified to accommodate a spark plug. Compression ratios (CR) of 16:1 and 14:1 were used during the experiments. Two different fuels were also tested, with properties representative of premium- and regular-grade market gasolines. SA was found to work well for both CRs and fuels. The equivalence ratio (ϕ) limits and the effect of intake-pressure boost on the ability of SA to compensate for a reduced Tin were studied. For the conditions studied, ϕ=0.42 was found to be most effective for SA.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Journal Article

Increasing the Load Range, Load-to-Boost Ratio, and Efficiency of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0731
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) has the potential to provide gasoline-fueled engines with efficiencies at or above those of diesel engines and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions. Three key performance goals for LTGC are to obtain high loads, reduce the boost levels required for these loads, and achieve high thermal efficiencies (TEs). This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the use of partial fuel stratification, produced using early direct fuel injection (Early-DI PFS), and an increased compression ratio (CR) to achieve significant improvements in these performance characteristics. The experiments were conducted in a 0.98-liter single-cylinder research engine. Increasing the CR from 14:1 to 16:1 produced a nominal increase in the TE of about one TE percentage unit for both premixed and Early-DI PFS operation.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Trace Knock in a Modern SI Engine Fuelled by Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

2015-04-14
2015-01-1242
This paper presents a numerical study of trace knocking combustion of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results are compared to experimental data from a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model containing detailed kinetic models. The two zone model uses a gasoline surrogate model [2] combined with a sub-model for nitric oxide (NO) [3] to simulate end-gas autoignition. Upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI) and direct injection (DI) are modeled and compared to characterize ethanol's low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling effects. Three ethanol/gasoline blends are studied: E0, E20, and E50. The modeled and experimental results demonstrate some systematic differences in the spark timing for trace knock across all three fuels, but the relative trends with engine load and ethanol content are consistent. Possible reasons causing the differences are discussed.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of HCCI Combustion with Isopentanol

2011-09-11
2011-24-0023
Isopentanol is an advanced biofuel that can be produced by micro-organisms through genetically engineered metabolic pathways. Compared to the more frequently studied ethanol, isopentanol's molecular structure has a longer carbon chain and includes a methyl branch. Its volumetric energy density is over 30% higher than ethanol, and it is less hygroscopic. Some fundamental combustion properties of isopentanol in an HCCI engine have been characterized in a recent study by Yang and Dec (SAE 2010-01-2164). They found that for typical HCCI operating conditions, isopentanol lacks two-stage ignition properties, yet it has a higher HCCI reactivity than gasoline. The amount of intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) is an important fuel property, and having sufficient ITHR is critical for HCCI operation without knock at high loads using intake-pressure boosting. Isopentanol shows considerable ITHR, and the amount of ITHR increases with boost, similar to gasoline.
Journal Article

Design and Analysis of a Modified CFR Engine for the Octane Rating of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1474
This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical study of a modified Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine that allows both the Research and Motor octane numbers (RON and MON) of any arbitrary Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) mixture to be determined. The design of the modified engine incorporates modern hardware that enables accurate metering of different LPG mixtures, together with measurement of the in-cylinder pressure, the air-fuel ratio and the engine-out emissions. The modified CFR engine is first used to measure the octane numbers of different LPG mixtures. The measured octane numbers are shown to be similar to the limited data acquired using the now withdrawn Motor (LP) test method (ASTM D2623). The volumetric efficiency, engine-out emissions and combustion efficiency for twelve alternative LPG mixtures are then compared with equivalent data acquired with the standard CFR engine operating on a liquid fuel. Finally, the modified CFR engine is modelled using GT-Power.
Journal Article

Effect of Ignition Improvers on the Combustion Performance of Regular-Grade E10 Gasoline in an HCCI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1282
This study explores the use of two conventional ignition improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), to enhance the autoignition of the regular gasoline in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions (up to 180 kPa absolute) with a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm. The results showed that both EHN and DTBP are very effective for reducing the intake temperature (Tin) required for autoignition and for enhancing stability to allow a higher charge-mass fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕm). On the other hand, the addition of these additives can also make the gasoline too reactive at some conditions, so significant exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required at these conditions to maintain the desired combustion phasing. Thus, there is a trade-off between improving stability and reducing the oxygen available for combustion when using ignition improvers to extend the high-load limit.
Journal Article

Improving Efficiency and Using E10 for Higher Loads in Boosted HCCI Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1107
This study systematically investigates the effects of various engine operating parameters on the thermal efficiency of a boosted HCCI engine, and the potential of E10 to extend the high-load limit beyond that obtained with conventional gasoline. Understanding how these parameters can be adjusted and the trade-offs involved is critical for optimizing engine operation and for determining the highest efficiencies for a given engine geometry. Data were acquired in a 0.98 liter, single-cylinder HCCI research engine with a compression-ratio of 14:1, and the engine facility was configured to allow precise control over the relevant operating parameters. The study focuses on boosted operation with intake pressures (Pin) ≥ 2 bar, but some data for Pin < 2 bar are also presented. Two fuels are considered: 1) an 87-octane gasoline, and 2) E10 (10% ethanol in this same gasoline) which has a lower autoignition reactivity for boosted operation.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

2012-04-16
2012-01-1120
High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60°C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
Technical Paper

Efficiency Improvement of Boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion Engines (LTGC) Using a Double Direct-Injection Strategy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0728
For lean or dilute, boosted gasoline compression-ignition engines operating in a low-temperature combustion mode, creating a partially stratified fuel charge mixture prior to auto-ignition can be beneficial for reducing the heat-release rate (HRR) and the corresponding maximum rate of pressure rise. As a result, partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be used to increase load and/or efficiency without knock (i.e. without excessive ringing). In this work, a double direct-injection (D-DI) strategy is investigated for which the majority of the fuel is injected early in the intake stroke to create a relatively well-mixed background mixture, and the remaining fuel is injected in the latter part of the compression stroke to produce greater fuel stratification prior auto-ignition. Experiments were performed in a 1-liter single-cylinder engine modified for low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) research.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Conventional Gasoline at Highly Boosted Conditions and the Associated Intermediate Temperature Heat Release

2012-04-16
2012-01-1109
The combustion behavior of conventional gasoline has been numerically investigated by means of detailed chemical-kinetic modeling simulations, with particular emphasis on analyzing the chemistry of the intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR). Previous experimental work on highly boosted (up to 325 kPa absolute) HCCI combustion of gasoline (SAE 2020-01-1086) showed a steady increase in the charge temperature up to the point of hot ignition, even for conditions where the ignition point was retarded well after top dead center (TDC). Thus, sufficient energy was being released by early pre-ignition reactions resulting in temperature rise during the early part of the expansion stroke This behavior is associated with a slow pre-ignition heat release (ITHR), which is critical to keep the engine from misfiring at the very late combustion phasings required to prevent knock at high-load boosted conditions.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Isopentanol as a Fuel for HCCI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2164
Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C 4 -C 5 alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C 5 alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A post-processing methodology for determining temperature distributions in an experimental HCCI engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1276
Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Sources of Combustion Noise in HCCI Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1272
This article presents an investigation of the sources combustion-generated noise and its measurement in HCCI engines. Two cylinder-pressure derived parameters, the Combustion Noise Level (CNL) and the Ringing Intensity (RI), that are commonly used to establish limits of acceptable operation are compared along with spectral analyses of the pressure traces. This study focuses on explaining the differences between these two parameters and on investigating the sensitivity of the CNL to the ringing/knock phenomenon, to which the human ear is quite sensitive. Then, the effects of independently varying engine operating conditions such as fueling rate, boost pressure, and speed on both the CNL and RI are studied. Results show that the CNL is not significantly affected by the high-frequency components related to the ringing/knock phenomenon.
Journal Article

Bio-Ketones: Autoignition Characteristics and Their Potential as Fuels for HCCI Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2627
This paper studies autoignition characteristics and HCCI engine combustion of ketone fuels, which are important constituents of recently discovered fungi-derived biofuels. Two ketone compounds, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone (DMPN) and cyclopentanone (CPN), are systematically investigated in the Sandia HCCI engine, and the results are compared with conventional gasoline and neat ethanol. It is found that CPN has the lowest autoignition reactivity of all the biofuels and gasoline blends tested in this HCCI engine. The combustion timing of CPN is also the most sensitive to intake-temperature (Tin) variations, and it is almost insensitive to intake-pressure (Pin) variations. These characteristics and the overall HCCI performance of CPN are similar to those of ethanol. In contrast, DMPN shows multi-faceted autoignition characteristics. On the one hand, DMPN has strong temperature-sensitivity, even at boosted Pin, which is similar to the low-reactivity ethanol and CPN.
Journal Article

Partial Fuel Stratification to Control HCCI Heat Release Rates: Fuel Composition and Other Factors Affecting Pre-Ignition Reactions of Two-Stage Ignition Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1359
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock. This study focuses on three factors, engine speed, intake temperature, and fuel composition, that can affect the pre-ignition processes of two-stage fuels and consequently affect their performance with partial fuel stratification. A model fuel consisting of 73 vol.% isooctane and 27 vol.% of n-heptane (PRF73), which was previously compared against neat isooctane to demonstrate the superior performance of two-stage fuels over single-stage fuels with partial fuel stratification, was first used to study the effects of engine speed and intake temperature.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI - Controlling Pressure-Rise Rates for Performance Improvements using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline

2011-04-12
2011-01-0897
This study investigates the potential of partial fuel stratification for reducing the knocking propensity of intake-boosted HCCI engines operating on conventional gasoline. Although intake boosting can substantially increase the high-load capability of HCCI, these engines would be more production-viable if the knock/stability load limit could be extended to allow higher loads at a given boost and/or to provide even higher thermal efficiencies. A technique termed partial fuel stratification (PFS) has recently been shown to greatly reduce the combustion-induced pressure-rise rate (PRR), and therefore the knocking propensity of naturally aspirated HCCI, when the engine is fueled with a φ-sensitive, two-stage-ignition fuel. The current work explores the potential of applying PFS to boosted HCCI operation using conventional gasoline, which does not typically show two-stage ignition. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) at 1200 rpm.
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