Development and Evaluation of a Human Lower Extremity Model
A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed in this study to simulate lower extremity behavior in frontal car crashes. Precise geometry of the human lower extremity and material properties of the hard and soft tissues were introduced to the model. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing with dynamic loading test data using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). The comparison proved its ability to estimate dynamic responses of the human lower extremity. A study was conducted using the model to investigate possible factors of loading to the ankle and tibia. Force and moment were calculated with different time history profiles of footwell intrusion and pelvis motion. The results suggested that timing of maximum intrusion was important as well as its magnitude. It was also found that loading to the tibia could be affected not only by intrusion but also by pelvis motion.