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Technical Paper

A Study on the Emissions of Chemical Species from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and the Effects of Modern Aftertreatment Technology

2009-04-20
2009-01-1084
A comparative analysis was made on the emissions from a 2004 and a 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine to determine how new engine and emissions technologies have affected the chemical compounds found in the exhaust gases. Representative samples were collected from a source dilution sampling system and analyzed for both criteria and unregulated gaseous and particulate emissions. Results have shown that the 2007 regulations compliant engine and emissions technology not only reduced the specifically regulated exhaust pollutants, but also significantly reduced the majority of unregulated chemical species. It is believed that these reductions were achieved through the use of engine optimization, aftertreatment system integration, and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of PCDD/F Testing Approaches for Mobile Source Engines over Transient and Steady-State Cycles

2010-04-12
2010-01-1290
Advances in aftertreatment technologies, such as Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts, have responded to increasingly stringent PM and NO requirements for diesel engines. Potentially viable SCR materials include copper and iron zeolite, which possess high thermal durabilities and conversion efficiencies. However, concern exists over the metal-catalyzed synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), especially since typical SCR operating temperatures overlap with optimal PCDD/F formation from the de novo and precursor mechanisms. Due to the lack of standardized testing methodology for measuring PCDD/F emissions from mobile sources, this study adapted EPA methods 0023A and TO-9A from their original applications of industrial stack and ambient air sampling.
Technical Paper

Effect of Reductive Regeneration Conditions on Reactivity and Stability of a Pd-Based Oxidation Catalyst for Lean-Burn Natural Gas Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1005
Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lab Reactor System for the Evaluation of Aftertreatment Catalysts for Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0999
Natural gas powered vehicles are attractive in certain applications due to their lower emissions in general than conventional diesel engines and the low cost of natural gas. For stoichiometric natural gas engines, the aftertreatment system typically consists only of a three-way catalyst (TWC). However, increasingly stringent NOx and methane regulations challenge current TWC technologies. In this work, a catalyst reactor system with variable lean/rich switching capability was developed for evaluating TWCs for stoichiometric natural gas engines. The effect of varying frequency and duty-cycle during lean/rich gas switching experiments was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (HWA) due to its high sensitivity to gas thermal properties. A theoretical reactor gas dispersion model was then developed and validated with the HWA measurements. The model is capable of predicting the actual lean/rich gas exposure to the TWC under different testing conditions.
Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0915
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

NO2 Formation and Mitigation in an Advanced Diesel Aftertreatment System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0651
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is known to pose a risk to human health and contributes to the formation of ground level ozone. In recognition of its human health implications, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.2 ppmv NO2 in 2012. For mobile sources, NO2 is regulated as a component of NOx (NO + NO2). In addition, the European Commission has indicated it is considering separate Euro 6 light-duty diesel and Euro VI heavy-duty diesel NO2 emissions limits likely to mitigate the formation of ground level ozone in urban areas. In this study, we conduct component-level reactor-based experiments to understand the effects that various aftertreatment catalyst technologies including diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst have on the formation and mitigation of NO2 emissions.
Journal Article

The Dynamics of Methane and NOx Removal by a Three-Way Catalyst: A Transient Response Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1270
Natural gas-powered engines are widely used due to their low fuel cost and in general their lower emissions than conventional diesel engines. In order to comply with emissions regulations, an aftertreatment system is utilized to treat exhaust from natural gas engines. Stoichiometric burn natural gas engines use three-way catalyst (TWC) technology to simultaneously remove NOx, CO, and hydrocarbon (HC). Removal of methane, one of the major HC emissions from natural gas engines, is difficult due to its high stability, posing a challenge for existing TWC technologies. In this work, degreened (DG), standard bench cycle (SBC)-aged TWC catalysts and a DG Pd-based oxidation catalyst (OC) were evaluated and compared under a variety of lean/rich gas cycling conditions, simulating stoichiometric natural gas engine emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nano-Filtered Intake Air on Diesel Particulate Matter Emissions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0642
While most reductions in diesel particulate matter (PM) have been implemented through internal engine improvements and aftertreatment systems, additional reductions may be found by controlling intake contaminants. Under the ideal conditions of operating with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel and filtered and conditioned intake air, a diesel engine produces a certain amount of PM. The PM emission levels may increase when intake air is polluted during harsh on- or off-road conditions. In this study, contaminants were allowed to enter the intake tract of the engine to determine whether or not increased particle ingestion leads to increased particulate matter expulsion. Diesel and test dust contaminants dispersed in intake air were filtered using both a conventional filtering medium and a nano-medium to determine their effects on diesel engine-out PM emissions. The paper characterizes the two media by microstructure, permeability, porosity, and fractional efficiency.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Engine Nano-Particles Using a Fast-Scanning Differential Mobility Particle Analyzer

2004-03-08
2004-01-0971
The characterization of engine particulate matter size distributions has become an important topic in the investigation of particulate matter formation, transport, and emission reduction technology. The majority of current size distribution analyses are conducted during steady state engine conditions. Although steady state analysis is valuable, most engines in mobile applications are operated under transient conditions, creating a demand for the transient state analysis of particulate emission patterns. In order to measure the instantaneous emissions of an engine under transient conditions, instrumentation must respond to the changing engine conditions as quickly as possible. In this study, a fast-scanning nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer (n-ASA) was used to measure the emitted particles of a heavy duty diesel engine during transient simulations. The results showed patterns of PM emissions at key areas throughout the test.
Technical Paper

Measuring the Fractional Efficiency of Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-1007
To meet stringent emission regulations, particulate filters will be required for diesel engines. Effective filters should reduce both the mass and number concentrations of particulate matter. For this reason, the performance of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) should be evaluated by measuring both gravimetric and fractional efficiency. This paper reports on a method developed for measuring particulate emissions on a mass and number basis. A two-stage dilution process was used in which the entire engine exhaust gas is directed into a primary dilution tunnel with a critical flow venturi. This constant volume system maintains proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions. A portion of the diluted exhaust gas is directed to a secondary dilution tunnel, for further dilution and determination of particle size distribution using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The engine was run at ISO 8178 modes.
Journal Article

Understanding System- and Component-Level N2O Emissions from a Vanadium-Based Nonroad Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0987
Nitrous oxide (N2O), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 297 and an average atmospheric residence time of over 100 years, is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). In recognition of this, N2O emissions from on-highway medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines were recently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) GHG Emission Standards. Unlike NO and NO2, collectively referred to as NOx, N2O is not a major byproduct of diesel combustion. However, N2O can be formed as a result of unselective catalytic reactions in diesel aftertreatment systems, and the mitigation of this unintended N2O formation is a topic of active research. In this study, a nonroad Tier 4 Final/Stage IV engine was equipped with a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. Experiments were conducted over nonroad steady and both cold and hot transient cycles (NRSC and NRTC, respectively).
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Measure Engine Air Cleaner Fractional Efficiency

1999-03-01
1999-01-0002
The gravimetric method is commonly used in engine air filtration technology for air cleaner, filter element and filter media testing. An “absolute” filter is employed in-line to collect any dust particles passing through the test filter. Air filter efficiency is calculated by comparing the mass of dust collected by the test filter with that fed to the filter. This method measures only the mass of dust penetrating the filter. It does not provide information on contaminant particle size. Moreover, this method, in many cases, has inadequate precision to distinguish between filters. Both the dust mass and its particle size are needed to estimate engine wear. Therefore, the SAE J726 Air Cleaner Committee initiated work on a test method to measure engine air cleaner fractional efficiency. This paper discusses problems associated with development of the fractional efficiency method for engine air cleaners.
Technical Paper

Significance of Fuel Sulfur Content and Dilution Conditions on Particle Emissions from a Heavily-Used Diesel Engine During Transient Operation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0319
The effects of fuel sulfur content and dilution conditions on diesel engine PM number emissions have been researched extensively through steady state testing. Most results show that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles emitted increases with fuel sulfur content. A few studies further observed that fuel sulfur content has little effect on the emissions of heavily-used engines. It has also been found that primary dilution conditions can have a large impact on the size and number distribution of the nuclei-mode particles. These effects, however, have not yet been fully understood through transient testing, the method used by governments worldwide to certify engines and regulate emissions, and a means of experimentation which generates realistic conditions of on-road vehicles by varying the load and speed of the engine.
Journal Article

Detailed Effects of a Diesel Particulate Filter on the Reduction of Chemical Species Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0333
Diesel particulate filters are designed to reduce the mass emissions of diesel particulate matter and have been proven to be effective in this respect. Not much is known, however, about their effects on other unregulated chemical species. This study utilized source dilution sampling techniques to evaluate the effects of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter on a wide spectrum of chemical emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine. The species analyzed included both criteria and unregulated compounds such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), inorganic ions, trace metallic compounds, elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other organic compounds. Results showed a significant reduction for the emissions of PM mass, CO, HC, metals, EC, OC, and PAHs.
Journal Article

Measurement of Dioxin and Furan Emissions during Transient and Multi-Mode Engine Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1158
This study analyzed the impact of transient and multi-mode engine conditions on emissions of dioxins and furans from a variety of diesel aftertreatment configurations. Exhaust aftertreatment systems included combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, and either Cu/zeolite or Fe/zeolite selective catalytic reduction catalyst. EPA method TO-9A was modified for proportional exhaust gas sampling, whereas EPA method 0023A was modified for raw exhaust gas sampling. Dioxin and furan emissions were first measured with modified method TO-9A during Federal Test Procedure transient cycles, but no toxic dioxins or furans were detected. Measurements were then taken with modified method 0023A during Ramped Mode Cycles-Supplemental Emissions Test experiments. Because more rigorous pre-cleaning and sample extraction procedures were used with this method and lower detection limits were achieved by the analytical laboratory, some dioxin and furan congeners were detected.
Journal Article

Comparative Study on Various Methods for Measuring Engine Particulate Matter Emissions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1748
Studies have shown that there are a significant number of chemical species present in engine exhaust particulate matter emissions. Additionally, the majority of current world-wide regulatory methods for measuring engine particulate emissions are gravimetrically based. As modern engines considerably reduce particulate mass emissions, these methods become less stable and begin to display higher levels of measurement uncertainty. In this study, a characterization of mass emissions from three heavy-duty diesel engines, with a range of particulate emission levels, was made in order to gain a better understanding of the variability and uncertainty associated with common mass measurement methods, as well as how well these methods compare with each other. Two gravimetric mass measurement methods and a reconstructed mass method were analyzed as part of the present study.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Organic Species from a Nonroad Vanadium-Based SCR Aftertreatment System

2015-09-29
2015-01-2904
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
Technical Paper

Transient Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters as Measured by an Engine Exhaust Particle Size Spectrometer

2005-04-11
2005-01-0185
The performance of diesel particulate filters (DPF) has historically been evaluated by gravimetric efficiency, which measures the mass of particulate matter (PM) trapped in the filters. This method does not measure the filtration efficiency at different PM size ranges and, therefore, cannot provide information on fractional performance of DPFs. This fact becomes significant because the adverse effects of diesel PM emissions on human health and the environment are size dependent. A previous study investigated the fractional performance of DPFs under steady state conditions using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In the real world, however, nearly all engines operate under transient conditions. DPFs also have to perform under such conditions, so any measurement of performance must be able to react to quickly changing DPF conditions.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for DEF Injection and Urea Decomposition in Mobile SCR DeNOx Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0889
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is a key technology that is being favored to meet stringent NOx emission standards across the world. Typically, in this technology, a liquid mixture of urea and water - known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - is injected into the hot exhaust gases leading to atomization and subsequent spray processes. The water content vaporizes, while the urea content undergoes thermolysis and forms ammonia and isocyanic acid, that can form additional ammonia through hydrolysis. Due to the increasing interest in SCR technology, it is desirable to have capabilities to model these processes with reasonable accuracy to both improve the understanding of processes important to the aftertreatment and to aid in system optimization. In the present study, a multi-dimensional model is developed to simulate DEF spray processes and the conversion of urea to ammonia. The model is then implemented into a commercial CFD code.
Journal Article

Conversion of Short-Chain Alkanes by Vanadium-Based and Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

2016-04-05
2016-01-0913
The oxidation of short-chain alkanes, such as methane, ethane, and propane, from the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas and lean-burn dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines poses a unique challenge to the exhaust aftertreatment community. Emissions of these species are currently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as either methane (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards) or non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). However, the complete catalytic oxidation of short-chain alkanes is challenging due to their thermodynamic stability. The present study focuses on the oxidation of short-chain alkanes by vanadium-based and Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, generally utilized to control NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. Results reveal that these catalysts are active for short-chain alkane oxidation, albeit, at conversions lower than those generally reported in the literature for Pd-based catalysts, typically used for short-chain alkane conversion.
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