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Technical Paper

High Temperature Battery for Space Applications

The Exploration of Venus and the atmospheres of the giant planets is a part of NASA's program for Solar System Exploration which seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Solar System. The development of high specific energy supplies which can function at high temperature and high pressure is critical to the successful execution of this exploration. A primary need is power supplies that can function within the environment of the atmospheres of these planets and provide power to in situ measurement and imagery equipment. This includes instruments that can move on the surface or within the atmosphere to evaluate more than just point locations. An example of the conditions which may be encountered is provided in an analysis of the atmosphere of Venus which features an atmosphere of dense carbon dioxide covered with clouds of sulfuric acid aerosols, a surface temperature of 486°̠C and a surface pressure of 90 atmospheres. Mobile Energy Products Inc.
Technical Paper

Advanced Bipolar Lithium Ion Battery

There are many potential equipment platforms both commercial and military that require enabling battery technology with a specific energy greater than 400 watt hours per kilogram. These platforms include electric vehicles, high altitude airships, and electrically powered unmanned aerial vehicles all of which have the potential to significantly affect the United States commercial and military economies. Mobile Energy Products Inc. (MEPI) is developing advanced bipolar lithium ion cell chemistry that has the potential to bring into being batteries that have a specific energy greater than 400 watt hours per kilogram. MEPI is working with the Energy Storage Research Group (ESRG) of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey to develop such a chemistry based on nanocomposite materials. The cell chemistry when incorporated into MEPI bipolar lithium ion technology is expected to yield batteries that can produce power over a wide temperature range at reasonable current rates.
Technical Paper

High Specific Energy Rechargeable Battery for the Tactical Warfighter

The advanced warfighter is increasingly dependent upon electronics equipment that requires a lightweight and reliable source of portable electric energy. The standard energy storage systems that are available to the warfighter are antiquated and do not meet the requirements of the advanced warfighter deployed for C4ISR tactical engagement. Electro Energy Mobile Products Inc. is developing a very high specific energy portable rechargeable battery using bipolar lithium ion technology that will meet these needs. The batteries will have a specific energy greater than 200 Wh/kg and be available in two different configurations. The first configuration will be that of the BB-2590/U and will provide greater than 10 ampere hours at 30 V and greater than 20 ampere hours at 15 V. The battery will have a pulse capability of 20 A in the 30 volt configuration and 20 A in the 15 volt configuration. The battery will have an excellent operational temperature range and have a life of over 400 cycles.
Technical Paper

Review of Capabilities and Performance of Sintered Plate NiCd Batteries

The use of more powerful and sophisticated electronic devices on today's military and commercial aircraft has increased demands on the aircraft electrical system. These devices place additional loads on the main aircraft battery during preflight systems checkout and during an electrical power emergency. The maintenance-free Sealed Nickel-Cadmium (SNC) battery has demonstrated high reliability, high power capability, and increased energy storage for these applications. Electro Energy, Mobile Products (EEMP) Inc, (formerly the Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC) has developed and manufactured sintered plate nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries for several flight programs. The sintered plate construction in NiCd's allows for high power density, long cycle life, and good low temperature performance. Nickel based batteries continue to play a significant role in the aircraft battery industry; therefore, it is important to review the benefits of this battery chemistry.
Technical Paper

High Performance Lithium Ion Aircraft Battery for DoD Platforms

This paper describes a development project at Electro Energy designed to develop a high performance aircraft battery which will be suitable for use in many DoD aircraft platforms. The goal is to provide a safer high energy and power battery for aircraft energy storage systems. Aircraft batteries used on military aircraft battery platforms have a low reliability and require significant maintenance and as a result have significant costs associated with them beyond the initial procurement cost. It is desirable to develop state of the art aircraft batteries which have high reliability and minimal maintenance costs. Lithium ion cells can be employed to produce a lithium ion aircraft battery which will have significant advantages over the present nickel cadmium and lead acid aircraft batteries. The lithium ion battery will have higher specific energy, increased energy density, improved cycle life, and lower maintenance requirements.
Technical Paper

High Power Lithium Ion Battery Facilitated by an Advanced Cathode

This paper presents the test results from cells fabricated using an advanced NMC cathode incorporated into the Electro Energy wafer cell which will increase the specific energy and specific power of the completed battery. The NMC material is processed to produce a cathode with loading and porosity which will result in an electrolyte interface capable of high ionic conduction. In addition electron conductivity is enhanced by a unique coating process which provides intimate contact between the NMC and the aluminum current collector. Many cells were fabricated to determine the optimum electrode and cell parameters to optimize the energy density, specific energy, power density and specific power of the cells. Cells were subjected to rate versus temperature discharge test regimes to determine capacity at various temperatures and rates from C/2 to 40C.
Technical Paper

Characterization Testing of Aircraft Nickel Electrodes

This manuscript addresses the characterization and evaluation of various nickel hydroxide half cells designed for use in aircraft batteries. Four different electrode configurations are examined for performance. Characterization testing includes evaluation for cycle life, utilization, capacity at temperature, and capacity at current.
Journal Article

Advanced FeF3 Cathode Enabled Lithium-ion Battery

At present Li-ion batteries are the premier rechargeable energy storage technology and they offer a promising future as a power source for high energy density battery applications. Unfortunately, their high performance still falls short of energy density goals in many military ground battery and soldier portable applications. Although a number of factors within the battery cell contribute to this performance parameter, the most crucial one relates to how much energy can be stored in the positive and negative electrode materials of the lithium ion battery. Very little focus had been shown in the research of the electrochemistry of transition metal fluorides until Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey began its investigation. The reason for this apparent lack of interest in these compounds was that their intrinsic properties appeared to make them less desirable as possible electrode materials for lithium batteries.