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Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of a Diesel Exhaust System Thermal Model

2004-03-08
2004-01-1131
A modeling study has been conducted in order to characterize the heat transfer in an automotive diesel exhaust system. The exhaust system model, focusing on 2 exhaust pipes, has been created using a transient 1-D engine flow network simulation program. Model results are in excellent agreement with experimental data gathered before commencement of the modeling study. Predicted pipe exit stream temperatures are generally within one percent of experimental values. Sensitivity analysis of the model was the major focus of this study. Four separate variables were chosen for the sensitivity analysis. These being the external convective heat transfer coefficient, external emissivity, mass flow rate of exhaust gases, and amplitude of incoming pressure fluctuations. These variables were independently studied to determine their contribution to changes in exhaust gas stream temperature and system heat flux. There are two primary benefits obtained from conducting this analysis.
Technical Paper

Pulsed Regeneration for DPF Aftertreatment Devices

2011-09-11
2011-24-0182
DPF regenerations involve a trade-off between fuel economy and DPF durability. High temperature regenerations of DPFs have fewer fuel penalties but simultaneously tend to give higher substrate temperatures, which can reduce thermal reliability. In order to weaken the trade-off, the integrated system-level model [1,2,3,4] is used to conduct optimization studies and explore novel regeneration strategies for DPF aftertreatment devices. The integrated model developed in the Engine Research Center (ERC) includes sub-models for engines, emissions, aftertreatment devices and controllers. Based on the engine and regeneration fuel economy, multiple and single cycle regeneration tests are performed and analyzed. The optimal soot loadings to initiate and terminate regenerations are discussed. A pulsed regeneration strategy, which is characterized by injecting multiple pulses of fuel (upstream of a DOC) during regenerations, is investigated.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

1995-02-01
950282
The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Wall Film Dynamics Modeling for Impinging Sprays in Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0099
This paper proposes a film dynamics model for liquid film resulting from fuel spray impinging on a wall surface. It is based on a thin film assumption and uses numerical particles to represent the film to be compatible with the particle spray models developed previously. The Lagrangian method is adopted to govern the transport of the film particles. A new, statistical treatment was introduced of the momentum exchange between the impinging spray and the wall film to account for the directional distribution of the impinging momentum. This model together with the previously published models for outgoing droplets constitutes a complete description of the spray wall impingement dynamics. For model validation, films resulting from impinging sprays on a flat surface with different impingement angles were calculated and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0550
This paper describes the CFD modeling work conducted for the development and research of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) system that demonstrated superior fuel economy benefits. The Ford in-house CFD code and simulation methodology were employed. In the VISC concept a vortex forms on the outside of the wide cone angle spray and transports fuel vapor from the spray to the spark plug gap. A spray model for an outward-opening pintle injector used in the engine was developed, tested, and implemented in the code. Modeling proved to be effective for design optimization and analysis. The CFD simulations revealed important physical phenomena associated with the spray-guided combustion system mixing preparation.
Technical Paper

Flamelet Modeling with LES for Diesel Engine Simulations

2006-04-03
2006-01-0058
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a flamelet time scale combustion model is used to simulate diesel combustion. The flamelet time scale model uses a steady-state flamelet library for n-heptane indexed by mean mixture fraction, mixture fraction variance, and mean scalar dissipation rate. In the combustion model, reactions proceed towards the flamelet library solution at a time scale associated with the slowest reaction. This combination of a flamelet solution and a chemical time scale helps to account for unsteady mixing effects. The turbulent sub-grid stresses are simulated using a one-equation, non-viscosity LES model called the dynamic structure model. The model uses a tensor coefficient determined by the dynamic procedure and the subgrid kinetic energy. The model has been expanded to include scalar mixing and scalar dissipation. A new model for the conditional scalar dissipation has been developed to better predict local extinction.
Technical Paper

Using Large Eddy Simulations to Study Mixing Effects in Early Injection Diesel Engine Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0871
Early direct injection with HCCI like properties is characterized by the presence of an ignition dwell - the interval between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, during which fuel-air mixing occurs. Previous work by Jhavar and Rutland (2005) has focused on investigating different methods to affect fuel-air mixing during the ignition dwell. That study helped to evaluate the relative influence of various mixing control strategies to achieve ignition control. In this study, we attempt to look into the mixture preparation process in more detail. Therefore, turbulence is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models in place of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models. While LES is computationally more expensive than RANS, it depicts the flow structure more accurately. Therefore, it can be applied to engines in order to gain a better representation of local mixing as well as accurately simulate unsteady flow behavior in engines.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of DPF Loading and Passive Regeneration on Engine Performance and Emissions Using an Integrated System Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0263
An integrated system model containing sub-models for a diesel engine, NOx and soot emissions, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used to simulate stead-state engine operating conditions. The simulation results have been used to investigate the effect of DPF loading and passive regeneration on engine performance and emissions. This work is the continuation of previous work done to create an overall diesel engine/exhaust system integrated model. As in the previous work, a diesel engine, exhaust system, engine soot emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) sub-models have been integrated into an overall model using Matlab Simulink. For the current work new sub-models have been added for engine-out NOx emissions and an engine feedback controller. The integrated model is intended for use in simulating the interaction of the engine and exhaust aftertreatment components.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine Using Artificial Neural Networks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2772
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been recognized as universal approximators for nonlinear continuous functions and actively applied in engine research in recent years [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8]. This paper describes the methodology and results of using the ANN to model a turbocharged DI diesel engine. The engine was simulated using the CFD code (KIVA-ERC) over a wide range of operating conditions, and numerical simulation results were used to train the ANN. An efficient data collection methodology using the Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques was developed to select the most characteristic engine operating conditions and hence the most informative data to train the ANN. This approach minimizes the time and cost of collecting training data from either computational or experimental resources. The trained ANN was then used to predict engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, cylinder temperature, NOx and soot emissions, and cylinder heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Air Mixing Homogeneity and Performance Improvements of a Stratified-Charge DISI Combustion System

2002-10-21
2002-01-2656
A CFD based design optimization methodology was developed and adopted to the development of a stratified-charge direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) combustion system. Two key important issues for homogeneous charge operation, volumetric efficiency and mixing homogeneity, are addressed. The intake port is optimized for improved volumetric efficiency with a CFD based numerical optimization tool. It is found that insufficient fuel-air mixing is the root cause for the low rated power of most DISI engines. The fuel-air mixing in-homogeneity is due to the interaction between intake flow and injected fuel spray. An injector mask design was proposed to alleviate such interaction, then to improve air-fuel mixture homogeneity. It was then confirmed with dynamometer testing that the optimized design improved engine output and at the same time had lower soot and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixing on Early Injection Diesel Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0154
Ignition dwell is defined as the interval between end of fuel injection and start of combustion in early injection diesel combustion that exhibits HCCI-like characteristics. In this project, the impact of in-cylinder temperature and fuel-air mixing on the ignition dwell was investigated. The engine cycle was simulated using the 3-D CFD code KIVA-3V. Work done by Klingbeil (2002) has shown that ignition dwell allows more time for fuel and air to mix and drastically reduces emissions of NOX and particulate matter. Temperature is known to have a direct impact on the duration of ignition dwell. However, initial fuel-air distribution and mixing (i.e. at the end of fuel injection) may also impact the duration of ignition dwell. To investigate this, variations in EGR, fuel injection timing, engine valve actuation and swirl were simulated. The aim was to use these techniques to generate varying levels of fuel-air mixing and to check if ignition dwell was affected.
Technical Paper

Integration of Diesel Engine, Exhaust System, Engine Emissions and Aftertreatment Device Models

2005-04-11
2005-01-0947
An overall diesel engine and aftertreatment system model has been created that integrates diesel engine, exhaust system, engine emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) models using MATLAB Simulink. The 1-D engine and exhaust system models were developed using WAVE. The engine emissions model combines a phenomenological soot model with artificial neural networks to predict engine out soot emissions. Experimental data from a light-duty diesel engine was used to calibrate both the engine and engine emissions models. The DPF model predicts the behavior of a clean and particulate-loaded catalyzed wall-flow filter. Experimental data was used to validate this sub-model individually. Several model integration issues were identified and addressed. These included time-step selection, continuous vs. limited triggering of sub-models, and code structuring for simulation speed. Required time-steps for different sub models varied by orders of magnitude.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer of Fuel Films Resulting from Impinging Sprays

1998-02-23
980132
To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Model DI-Diesel HCCI Combustion for Use in Cycle Simulation Studies

2005-10-24
2005-01-3743
An approach to accurately capture overall behavior in a system level model of DI Diesel HCCI engine operation is presented. The modeling methodology is an improvement over the previous effort [36], where a multi-zone model with detailed chemical kinetics was coupled with an engine cycle simulation code. This multi-zone technique was found to be inadequate in capturing the fuel spray dynamics and its impact on mixing. An improved methodology is presented in this paper that can be used to model fully and partially premixed charge compression ignition engines. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) driven model is used where the effects of fuel injection, spray evolution, evaporation, and turbulent mixing are considered. The modeling approach is based on the premise that once the initial spray dynamics are correctly captured, the overall engine predictions during the combustion process can be captured with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Conventional Diesel-type and HCCI-type Diesel Combustion with Large Eddy Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0958
A general combustion model, in the context of large eddy simulations, was developed to simulate the full range of combustion in conventional diesel-type and HCCI-type diesels. The combustion model consisted of a Chemkin sub-model and an Extended Flamelet Time Scale (EFTS) sub-model. Specifically, Chemkin was used to simulate auto-ignition process. In the post-ignition phase, the combustion model was switched to EFTS. In the EFTS sub-model, combustion was assumed to be a combination of two elementary combustion modes: homogeneous combustion and flamelet combustion. The combustion index acted as a weighting factor blending the contributions from these two modes. The Chemkin sub-model neglected the subgrid scale turbulence-chemistry interactions whereas the EFTS model took them into account through a presumed PDF approach. The model was used to simulate an early injection mode of a Cummins DI diesel engine and a mode of a Caterpillar DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation

1995-02-01
950278
An integrated numerical model has been developed for diesel engine computations based on the KIVA-II code. The model incorporates a modified RNG k-ε, turbulence model, a ‘wave’ breakup spray model, the Shell ignition model, the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time combustion model, a crevice flow model, a spray/wall impingement model that includes rebounding and breaking-up drops, and other improved submodels in the KIVA code. The model was validated and applied to model successfully different types of diesel engines under various operating conditions. These engines include a Caterpillar engine with different injection pressures at different injection timings, a small Tacom engine at different loads, and a Cummins engine modified by Sandia for optical experiments. Good levels of agreement in cylinder pressures and heat release rate data were obtained using the same computer model for all engine cases.
Technical Paper

An Application of the Coherent Flamelet Model to Diesel Engine Combustion

1995-02-01
950281
A turbulent combustion model based on the coherent flamelet model was developed in this study and applied to diesel engines. The combustion was modeled in three distinct but overlapping phases: low temperature ignition kinetics using the Shell ignition model, high temperature premixed burn using a single step Arrhenius equation, and the flamelet based diffusion burn. Two criteria for transitions based on temperature, heat release rate, and the local Damköhler number were developed for the progression of combustion between each of these phases. The model was implemented into the computational computer code KIVA-II. Previous experiments on a Caterpillar model E 300, # 1Y0540 engine, a Tacom LABECO research engine, and a single cylinder version of a Cummins N14 production engine were used to validate the cylinder averaged predictions of the model.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Spray Atomization and Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970884
A numerical study of air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was carried out. In this paper, the numerical models are described and grid generation methods to represent a realistic port-valve-chamber geometry is discussed. To model a vaporizing hollow-cone spray resulting from an automotive pressure-swirl injector, a newly developed sheet spray atomization model was used to compute the processes of disintegration of the liquid sheet and breakup of the subsequent drops. Computations were performed of a particular 4-valve pent-roof engine configuration in which the intake process and an early fuel injection scheme were considered. After an analysis of the intake-generated flow structures in this engine configuration, the spray behavior and the spatial and temporal evolution of fuel liquid and vapor phases are characterized.
Technical Paper

Understanding of Intake Cam Phasing Effects on the Induction and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1947
Variable Cam Timing (VCT) has been proven to be a very effective method in PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engines for improved fuel economy and combustion stability, and reduced emissions. In DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines, VCT is applied in both stratified-charge and homogeneous charge operating modes. In stratified-charge mode, VCT is used to reduce NOx emission and improve combustion stability. In homogeneous charge mode, the function of VCT is similar to that in PFI engines. In DISI engine, however, the VCT also affects the available fuel-air mixing time. This paper focuses on VCT effects on the induction process and the fuel-air mixing homogeneity in a DISI engine. The detailed induction process with large exhaust-intake valve overlap has been investigated with CFD modeling. Seven characteristic sub-processes during the induction have been identified. The associated mechanism for each sub-process is also investigated.
Technical Paper

Cycle Simulation Diesel HCCI Modeling Studies and Control

2004-10-25
2004-01-2997
An integrated system based modeling approach has been developed to understand early Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) process. GT-Power, a commercial one-dimensional (1-D) engine cycle code has been coupled with an external cylinder model which incorporates sub-models for fuel injection, vaporization, detailed chemistry calculations (Chemkin), heat transfer, energy conservation and species conservation. In order to improve the modeling accuracy, a multi-zone model has been implemented to account for temperature and fuel stratifications in the cylinder charge. The predictions from the coupled simulation have been compared with experimental data from a single cylinder Caterpillar truck engine modified for Diesel HCCI operation. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effect of combustion timing on four major control parameters. Overall the results show good agreement of the trends between the experiments and model predictions.
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