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Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Advanced Engines Using Discretized Nonlinear Control Oriented Models

2010-10-25
2010-01-2216
This paper proposes a methodology to develop a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) of a dual-independent variable valve timing (di-VVT) engine using discretized nonlinear engine models. In multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems, model based control methodologies are critical for realizing the full potential of complex hardware. Fast and accurate control oriented models (COM) that capture combustion physics, actuator and system dynamics are prerequisites for developing NMPC. We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to generate the non-linear combustion model, where the high-fidelity engine cycle simulation is utilized to characterize effects of turbulence, air-to-fuel ratio, residual fraction, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The input-to-output relations are subsequently captured with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Manifold and actuator dynamics are discretized to reduce computation efforts.
Technical Paper

Deaeration Device Study for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

2012-09-24
2012-01-2038
This paper investigates the development of a deaeration device to remove nitrogen from the hydraulic fluid in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). HHVs, which use accumulators to store and recycle energy, can significantly reduce vehicle emissions in urban delivery vehicles. In accumulators, nitrogen behind a piston cylinder or inside a bladder pressurizes an incompressible fluid. The permeation of the nitrogen through the rubber bladder into the hydraulic fluid limits the efficiency and reliability of the HHV system, since the pressure drop in the hydraulic fluid can in turn cause cavitation on pump components and excessive noise in the system. The nitrogen bubbles within the hydraulic fluid may be removed through the employment of commercial bubble eliminators if the bubbles are larger than a certain threshold. However, gas is also dissolved within the hydraulic fluid; therefore, novel design is necessary for effective deaeration in the fluid HHV circuit.
Technical Paper

Self-Learning Neural Controller for Hybrid Power Management Using Neuro-Dynamic Programming

2011-09-11
2011-24-0081
A supervisory controller strategy for a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of the two power sources onboard of a vehicle to maximize objectives like fuel economy. In the past, various control strategies have been developed using heuristics as well as optimal control theory. The Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) has been previously applied to determine implementable optimal control policies for discrete time dynamic systems whose states evolve according to given transition probabilities. However, the approach is constrained by the curse of dimensionality, i.e. an exponential increase in computational effort with increase in system state space, faced by dynamic programming based algorithms. This paper proposes a novel approach capable of overcoming the curse of dimensionality and solving policy optimization for a system with very large design state space.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Powertrain-In-the-Loop Integration for Analyzing Real-World Fuel Economy and Emissions Improvements

2011-09-13
2011-01-2275
The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. The configuration of the hydraulic-hybrid system and details of the hydraulic circuit developed for the H-PIL integration are presented. Next, software and hardware interfaces between the real components and virtual systems are developed, and special attention is given to linking component-level controllers and system-level supervisory control. The H-PIL setup allows imposing realistic dynamic loads on hydraulic pump/motors and accumulator based on vehicle driving schedule.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Real-World Driving Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0840
This paper proposes a framework to perform design optimization of a series PHEV and investigates the impact of using real-world driving inputs on final design. Real-World driving is characterized from a database of naturalistic driving generated in Field Operational Tests. The procedure utilizes Markov chains to generate synthetic drive cycles representative of real-world driving. Subsequently, PHEV optimization is performed in two steps. First the optimal battery and motor sizes to most efficiently achieve a desired All Electric Range (AER) are determined. A synthetic cycle representative of driving over a given range is used for function evaluations. Then, the optimal engine size is obtained by considering fuel economy in the charge sustaining (CS) mode. The higher power/energy demands of real-world cycles lead to PHEV designs with substantially larger batteries and engines than those developed using repetitions of the federal urban cycle (UDDS).
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0175
The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Li-Ion Battery Aging Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Supervisory Control Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-0274
This paper presents the development of an electrochemical aging model of LiFePO4-Graphite battery based on single particle (SP) model. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth is considered as the aging mechanism. It is intended to provide both sufficient fidelity and computational efficiency required for integration within the HEV power management optimization framework. The model enables assessment of the battery aging rate by considering instantaneous lithium ion surface concentration rather than average concentration, thus enhancing the fidelity of predictions. In addition, an approximate analytical method is applied to speed up the calculation while preserving required accuracy. Next, this aging model are illustrated two applications. First is hybrid electric powertrain system model integration and simulation.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

2005-05-11
2005-01-2092
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions - HMMWV Case Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0443
This paper describes a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a vehicle system simulation, and its use for evaluating engine performance when integrated with a conventional and a hybrid electric driveline/vehicle. This engine-in-the-loop (EIL) system uses fast instruments and emission analyzers to investigate how critical in-vehicle transients affect engine system response and transient emissions. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study two different powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engine and its Use for 2- and 4-Valve Engine Matching Studies

1991-02-01
910075
A quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the turbocharged spark-ignition engine has been developed in order to study system performance as various design parameters and operating conditions are varied. The simulation is of the “filling and emptying” type. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, intercooler, manifolds, turbine, wastegate, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder engine model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. A turbulent entrainment model of the combustion process is used, thus allowing for studies of the effects of various combustion chamber shapes and turbulence parameters on cylinder pressure, temperature, NOx emissions and overall engine performance. Valve open areas are determined either based on user supplied valve lift data or using polydyne-generated cam profiles which allow for variable valve timing studies.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

2004-10-25
2004-01-2996
An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3054
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System - Nonlinear Controller Design

2015-04-14
2015-01-1710
The components in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain include the battery pack, an internal combustion engine, and the electric machines such as motors and possibly a generator. These components generate a considerable amount of heat during driving cycles. A robust thermal management system with advanced controller, designed for temperature tracking, is required for vehicle safety and energy efficiency. In this study, a hybridized mid-size truck for military application is investigated. The paper examines the integration of advanced control algorithms to the cooling system featuring an electric-mechanical compressor, coolant pump and radiator fans. Mathematical models are developed to numerically describe the thermal behavior of these powertrain elements. A series of controllers are designed to effectively manage the battery pack, electric motors, and the internal combustion engine temperatures.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits on a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3277
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines offer a good potential for achieving high fuel efficiency while virtually eliminating NOx and soot emissions from the exhaust. However, realizing the full fuel economy potential at the vehicle level depends on the size of the HCCI operating range. The usable HCCI range is determined by the knock limit on the upper end and the misfire limit at the lower end. Previously proven high sensitivity of the HCCI process to thermal conditions leads to a hypothesis that combustion chamber deposits (CCD) could directly affect HCCI combustion, and that insight about this effect can be helpful in expanding the low-load limit. A combustion chamber conditioning process was carried out in a single-cylinder gasoline-fueled engine with exhaust re-breathing to study CCD formation rates and their effect on combustion. Burn rates accelerated significantly over the forty hours of running under typical HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Fluid Deaeration Device for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0308
The attractiveness of the hydraulic hybrid concept stems from the high power density and efficiency of the pump/motors and the accumulator. This is particularly advantageous in applications to heavy vehicles, as high mass translates into high rates of energy flows through the system. Using dry case hydraulic pumps further improves the energy conversion in the system, as they have 1-4% better efficiency than traditional wet-case pumps. However, evacuation of fluid from the case introduces air bubbles and it becomes imperative to address the deaeration problems. This research develops a bubble elimination efficiency testing apparatus (BEETA) to establish quantitative results characterizing bubble removal from hydraulic fluid in a cyclone deaeration device. The BEETA system mixes the oil and air according to predetermined ratio, passes the mixture through a cyclone deaeration device, and then measures the concentration of air in the exiting fluid.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0094
Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1087
Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) System for the HMMWV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0442
The development and use of a simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) for a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is presented here. While the primary purpose of an ISA is to provide electric power for additional accessories, it can also be utilized for mild hybridization of the powertrain. In order to explore ISA's potential for improving HMMWV's fuel economy, an ISA model capable of both producing and absorbing mechanical power has been developed in Simulink. Based on the driver's power request and the State of Charge of the battery (SOC), the power management algorithm determines whether the ISA should contribute power to, or absorb power from the crankshaft. The system is also capable of capturing some of the braking energy and using it to charge the battery. The ISA model and the power management algorithm have been integrated in the Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM), a SIMULINK-based vehicle model previously developed at the University of Michigan.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Study of a 1.1 L Turbocharged Intercooled Carburettor Engine

1989-02-01
890458
Turbocharging and intercooling were applied to a 1.1 1 passenger car gasoline engine in order to achieve power and torque of a 1.6 1 naturally aspirated engine. On the basis of standard production four cylinder OHC powerplant a prototype engine was developed featuring: turbocharger with integral wastegate, intercooler, pressurised carburettor and modified camshaft. Extensive dynamometer testing was carried out with the main objective to investigate effects of various design parameters on turbocharger system behaviour and to select optimum values for a desired power increase. Following parameters were varied: boost pressure level, temperature and pressure drop across intercooler, turbine housings and valve timing. Fuel economy comparison shows that turbocharged engine can be advantageous in the low load - low speed region.
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