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Journal Article

Effect of Spray-Exhaust Gas Interactions on Ammonia Generation in SCR Mixing Sections

2018-05-22
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides with ammonia is a promising solution to meet upcoming emission regulations for lean-burning combustion engines. Due to the toxicity of ammonia, exclusively SCR systems with precursor substances, e.g., a urea-water solution (UWS), are available or being developed. The determining factors for the efficiency of SCR systems are sufficient ammonia generation and homogenization upstream of the catalytic converter. In the first part, this study presents an experimental investigation of the occurring mechanisms during ammonia generation from UWS droplets; including the evaporation of water, the thermal decomposition of urea, and droplet-wall interactions. In the second part, the observed physical and chemical phenomena are mathematically described and constitute the basis for the development of a simulation model. For this purpose, experiments by means of TGA were conducted to thoroughly investigate the UWS decomposition.
Journal Article

Literature Review on the Effects of Organometallic Fuel Additives in Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

2018-04-18
Abstract A literature review was conducted and fuel survey data were obtained to identify the use of metallic fuel additives (MFAs) within market fuels and determine their effects on engines, exhaust systems, and vehicle performance. The primary focus was on modern vehicles equipped with on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems and advanced emissions control systems. For gasoline, this includes vehicles categorized as National Low Emission Vehicles (NLEV) and Tier 2 or beyond in the U.S., and Euro-3 through Euro-6 in the EU. For diesel, this includes engines/vehicles with original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-equipped oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. The literature search of peer-reviewed papers and other publicly available articles returned over 100 items relevant to the use of organometallic fuel additives, but did not provide significant evidence of widespread use of MFAs in either gasoline or diesel fuels.
Journal Article

Aging Effects of Catalytic Converters in Diesel Exhaust Gas Systems and Their Influence on Real Driving NOx Emissions for Urban Buses

2018-06-18
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides seems to be the most promising technique to meet prospective emission regulations of diesel-driven commercial vehicles. In the case of developing cost-effective catalytic converters with comparably high activity, selectivity, and resistance against aging, ion-exchanged zeolites play a major role. This study presents, firstly, a brief literature review and subsequently a discussion of an extensive conversion analysis of exemplary Cu/ and Fe/zeolites, as well as a homogeneous admixture of both. The aging stages of SCR catalysts deserve particular attention in this study. In addition, the aging condition of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was analyzed, which influences the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, because the NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio upstream from the SCR converter could be identified as a key factor for low temperature NOx conversion.
Journal Article

Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

2018-07-24
Abstract Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of In-Cylinder Pressures to Validate High-Range VCR

2018-10-22
Abstract This article serves as a proof-of-concept and feasibility analysis regarding a variable compression ratio (VCR) engine design utilizing an exhaust valve opening during the compression stroke to vary the compression ratio instead of the traditional method of changing the cylinder or piston geometry patented by Ford, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Peugeot, Gomecsys, et al. [1]. In this concept, an additional exhaust valve opening was used to reduce the virtual compression ratio of the engine, without geometric changes. A computational fluid dynamic model in ANSYS Forte was used to simulate a single-cylinder, cold flow, four-stroke, direct injection engine cycle. In this model, the engine was simulated at a compression ratio of 10:1. Then, the model was modified to a compression ratio of 17:1. Then, an additional valve opening at the end of the compression stroke was added to the 17:1 high compression model.
Journal Article

Development of a Catalytic Converter Cool-Down Model to Investigate Intermittent Engine Operation in HEVs

2018-10-29
Abstract Catalytic converters, a primary component in most automotive emissions control systems, do not function well until they are heated substantially above ambient temperature. As the primary energy for catalyst heating comes from engine exhaust gases, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that have the potential for short and infrequent use of their onboard engine may have limited energy available for catalytic converter heating. This article presents a comparison of multiple hybrid supervisory control strategies to determine the ability to avoid engine cold starts during a blended charge-depleting propulsion mode. Full vehicle and catalytic converter simulations are performed in parallel with engine dynamometer testing in order to examine catalyst temperature variations during the course of the US06 City drive cycle. Emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) calculations are also performed to determine the effective number of engine starts during the drive cycle.
Journal Article

Carbon Monoxide Density Pattern Mapping from Recreational Boat Testing

2018-10-04
Abstract Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas can cause health risks for users of recreational boats and watercraft. Activities such as waterskiing, wakeboarding, tubing, and wakesurfing primarily utilize gasoline engine-driven vessels which produce CO as a combustion by-product. Recent watersports trends show an increase in popularity of activities which take place closer to the stern of the boat (such as wakesurfing) as compared to traditional waterskiing and wakeboarding. Advancements in gas emissions treatment in marine engine exhaust system designs have reduced risks for CO exposure in some boats. This article presents results from on-water testing of three recreational boats, reports average and maximum values of CO levels under various conditions, and exhibits mapping of the density of CO relative to the stern of the test vessels.
Journal Article

Analysis of Evaporative and Exhaust-Related On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Readiness Monitors and DTCs Using I/M and Roadside Data

2018-03-01
Abstract Under contract to the EPA, Eastern Research Group analyzed light-duty vehicle OBD monitor readiness and diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) using inspection and maintenance (I/M) data from four states. Results from roadside pullover emissions and OBD tests were also compared with same-vehicle I/M OBD results from one of the states. Analysis focused on the evaporative emissions control (evap) system, the catalytic converter (catalyst), the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and the oxygen sensor and oxygen sensor heater (O2 system). Evap and catalyst monitors had similar overall readiness rates (90% to 95%), while the EGR and O2 systems had higher readiness rates (95% to 98%). Approximately 0.7% to 2.5% of inspection cycles with a “ready” evap monitor had at least one stored evap DTC, but DTC rates were under 1% for the catalyst and EGR systems, and under 1.1% for the O2 system, in the states with enforced OBD programs.
Journal Article

CFD Modeling of Tailpipe NOx Sensor Accuracy

2018-08-08
Abstract In a modern diesel aftertreatment system, a sensor for nitrogen oxides (NOx) placed downstream of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst is necessary to determine if the tailpipe NOx concentration remains below the applicable On-board diagnostic (OBD) threshold. Typically the same NOx sensor also provides feedback to the dosing control module to adjust diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) dosing rate thereby controlling tailpipe NOx and ammonia emissions. However, feedback signal sent by the tailpipe NOx sensor may not always be accurate due to reasons including non-uniformity in NOx and ammonia distributions at SCR outlet. Flow based metrics from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses, that are typically used to qualitatively assess NOx sensor accuracy in different designs are often inadequate. In this work, an improved CFD analysis procedure has been developed for assessing NOx sensor accuracy.
Journal Article

Gasoline Particulate Filter Wall Permeability Testing

2018-10-29
Abstract With the introduction of particulate matter emissions regulations for gasoline engines, most car manufacturers are considering using gasoline particulate filters (GPFs). Although very similar to diesel particulate filters (DPFs), GPFs operate at higher temperatures and generally have thinner monolith walls. In order to estimate the pressure loss through the filter, filter wall permeability is needed. This presents a number of challenges since wall losses cannot be efficiently isolated from other losses in a full-scale filter or filter core. Thin wall wafers have been used for DPF characterization. However, GPF wafers are generally thinner, which makes the testing less straightforward. This article presents a novel effective methodology for estimation of GPF wall permeability using thin wafers cut from the filter monolith. Both cold and hot flow permeabilities can be estimated, which allows to account for the change of apparent permeability due to the slip effect.
Journal Article

Comparative Analysis of Performance of Neural Estimators for Diagnostics in Engine Emission System

2018-06-14
Abstract This article describes the results of a comparative performance analysis on the use of neural estimators to accurately estimate the Differential Pressure (DP) signal from diesel engine systems equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) aftertreatment system. For most systems, there are known and modeled relationships between system inputs and outputs; however, in the case of nonlinear, time-varying systems a detailed modeling of the system might not be readily available. Therefore, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been used for developing critical relationship between system inputs (engine and aftertreatment parameters) and system output (DP signal). Both batch (offline) and online learning ANN estimators have been proposed. A control-oriented engine out DPF-DP model is desirable for on-board applications as a virtual DPF-DP sensor which could be used in parallel as an alternate analytical redundancy-based sensor.
Journal Article

Exhaust Manifold Thermal Assessment with Ambient Heat Transfer Coefficient Optimization

2018-06-04
Abstract Exhaust manifolds are one of the most important components on the engine assembly, which is mounted on engine cylinder head. Exhaust manifolds connect exhaust ports of cylinders to the turbine for turbocharged diesel engine therefore they play a significant role in the performance of engine system. Exhaust manifolds are subjected to very harsh thermal loads; extreme heating under very high temperatures and cooling under low temperatures. Therefore designing a durable exhaust manifold is a challenging task. Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an effective tool to drive an exhaust manifold design at the early stage of engine development. Thus advanced CAE methodologies are required for the accurate prediction of temperature distribution. However, at the end of the development process, for the design verification purposes, various tests have to be carried out in engine dynamometer cells under severe operating conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of SCR Spray Evolution and Sizing in High-Temperature and Flash Boiling Conditions

2019-05-16
Abstract In the last years, new stringent emission legislation in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) has been leading to a massive development of advanced after-treatment systems for diesel engines. Among them, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has proved to be an effective approach for NOx reduction in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In SCR systems, the interaction between diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) and hot exhaust gas is crucial to promote the chemical reactions through which ammonia is produced. Hence, a proper matching between the exhaust pipe architecture and the DEF spray is mandatory for obtaining an adequate SCR efficiency, especially in close-coupled configurations and moderate exhaust gas temperature conditions. To this end, significant benefits could be derived via appropriate SCR injector thermal management, as the spray structure is significantly influenced by the DEF temperature upstream of the injector nozzle.
Journal Article

The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

2019-01-23
Abstract The article describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement. The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components’ light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features has been thoroughly experimentally examined.
Journal Article

Homogeneous Charge Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition Strategy to Reduce Regulated Pollutants from Diesel Engines

2019-03-14
Abstract Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a dual fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) strategy which results in a wider operating load range, near-zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher thermal efficiency. One of the major shortcomings in RCCI is a higher unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Unlike conventional combustion, aftertreatment control of HC and CO emissions is difficult to achieve in RCCI owing to lower exhaust gas temperatures. In conventional RCCI, an early direct injection (DI) of low volatile diesel fuel into the premixed gasoline-air mixture in the combustion chamber results in charge stratification and fuel spray wall wetting leading to higher HC and CO emissions. To address this limitation, a homogeneous charge reactivity-controlled compression ignition (HCRCCI) strategy is proposed in the present work, wherein the DI of diesel fuel is eliminated.
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