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Journal Article

Toward Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy with ADAS

2018-10-29
Abstract Modern vehicles have incorporated numerous safety-focused advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) in the last decade including smart cruise control and object avoidance. In this article, we aim to go beyond using ADAS for safety and propose to use ADAS technology to enable predictive optimal energy management and improve vehicle fuel economy (FE). We combine ADAS sensor data with a previously developed prediction model, dynamic programming (DP) optimal energy management control, and a validated model of a 2010 Toyota Prius to explore FE. First, a unique ADAS detection scope is defined based on optimal vehicle control prediction aspects demonstrated to be relevant from the literature. Next, during real-world city and highway drive cycles in Denver, Colorado, a camera is used to record video footage of the vehicle environment and define ADAS detection ground truth. Then, various ADAS algorithms are combined, modified, and compared to the ground truth results.
Journal Article

Effect of Spray-Exhaust Gas Interactions on Ammonia Generation in SCR Mixing Sections

2018-05-22
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides with ammonia is a promising solution to meet upcoming emission regulations for lean-burning combustion engines. Due to the toxicity of ammonia, exclusively SCR systems with precursor substances, e.g., a urea-water solution (UWS), are available or being developed. The determining factors for the efficiency of SCR systems are sufficient ammonia generation and homogenization upstream of the catalytic converter. In the first part, this study presents an experimental investigation of the occurring mechanisms during ammonia generation from UWS droplets; including the evaporation of water, the thermal decomposition of urea, and droplet-wall interactions. In the second part, the observed physical and chemical phenomena are mathematically described and constitute the basis for the development of a simulation model. For this purpose, experiments by means of TGA were conducted to thoroughly investigate the UWS decomposition.
Journal Article

Literature Review on the Effects of Organometallic Fuel Additives in Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

2018-04-18
Abstract A literature review was conducted and fuel survey data were obtained to identify the use of metallic fuel additives (MFAs) within market fuels and determine their effects on engines, exhaust systems, and vehicle performance. The primary focus was on modern vehicles equipped with on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems and advanced emissions control systems. For gasoline, this includes vehicles categorized as National Low Emission Vehicles (NLEV) and Tier 2 or beyond in the U.S., and Euro-3 through Euro-6 in the EU. For diesel, this includes engines/vehicles with original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-equipped oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. The literature search of peer-reviewed papers and other publicly available articles returned over 100 items relevant to the use of organometallic fuel additives, but did not provide significant evidence of widespread use of MFAs in either gasoline or diesel fuels.
Journal Article

Speed Planning and Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Based on Real-Time Calculation of Resistance

2019-06-25
Abstract When commercial vehicles drive in a mountainous area, the complex road condition and long slopes cause frequent acceleration and braking, which will use 25% more fuel. And the brake temperature rises rapidly due to continuous braking on the long-distance downslopes, which will make the brake drum fail with the brake temperature exceeding 308°C [1]. Meanwhile, the kinetic energy is wasted during the driving progress on the slopes when the vehicle rolls up and down. Our laboratory built a model that could calculate the distance from the top of the slope, where the driver could release the accelerator pedal. Thus, on the slope, the vehicle uses less fuel when it rolls up and less brakes when down. What we do in this article is use this model in a real vehicle and measure how well it works.
Journal Article

Development of a New Neutral Coasting Control Utilizing ADAS and GPS

2019-01-23
Abstract It has been discussed in numerous prior studies that in-neutral coasting, or sailing, can accomplish considerable amount of fuel saving when properly used. The driving maneuver basically makes the vehicle sail in neutral gear when propulsion is unnecessary. By disengaging a clutch or shifting the gear to neutral, the vehicle may better utilize its kinetic energy by avoiding dragging from the engine side. This strategy has been carried over to series production recently in some of the vehicles on the market and has become one of the eco-mode features available in current vehicles. However, the duration of coasting must be long enough to attain more fuel economy benefit than deceleration fuel cutoff (DFCO)-which exists in all current vehicle powertrain controllers-can bring. Also, the transients during shifting back to drive gear can result in a drivability concern.
Journal Article

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

2018-12-11
Abstract This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%).
Journal Article

A Study of an Integrated HVAC-Vehicle Model for Automotive Vehicles

2018-04-18
Abstract The objective of this work is to develop an integrated HVAC-VEHICLE model for climate control studies. A published lumped parameter based HVAC model has been used as the framework for the HVAC modeling with some modifications to realize the climate control and to improve the robustness of the model. R134a (1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane) has been used as the refrigerant fluid in this study. The stand-alone HVAC model has been compared qualitatively with the experimental works available in the literature. The experimental trends of the thermodynamic and performance related parameters of HVAC are reasonably well captured by the HVAC model. In particular, Coefficient of Performance (CoP) was found to decrease with increase in compressor speed and increase in ambient temperature but increase with increase in evaporator blower mass flow rate.
Journal Article

Exhaust Manifold Thermal Assessment with Ambient Heat Transfer Coefficient Optimization

2018-06-04
Abstract Exhaust manifolds are one of the most important components on the engine assembly, which is mounted on engine cylinder head. Exhaust manifolds connect exhaust ports of cylinders to the turbine for turbocharged diesel engine therefore they play a significant role in the performance of engine system. Exhaust manifolds are subjected to very harsh thermal loads; extreme heating under very high temperatures and cooling under low temperatures. Therefore designing a durable exhaust manifold is a challenging task. Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an effective tool to drive an exhaust manifold design at the early stage of engine development. Thus advanced CAE methodologies are required for the accurate prediction of temperature distribution. However, at the end of the development process, for the design verification purposes, various tests have to be carried out in engine dynamometer cells under severe operating conditions.
Journal Article

Steady Aeroelastic Response Prediction and Validation for Automobile Hoods

2018-07-10
Abstract The pursuit of improved fuel economy through weight reduction, reduced manufacturing costs, and improved crash safety can result in increased compliance in automobile structures. However, with compliance comes an increased susceptibility to aerodynamic and vibratory loads. The hood in particular withstands considerable aerodynamic force at highway speeds, creating the potential for significant aeroelastic response that may adversely impact customer satisfaction and perception of vehicle quality. This work seeks an improved understanding in computational and experimental study of fluid-structure interactions between automobile hoods and the surrounding internal and external flow. Computational analysis was carried out using coupled CFD-FEM solvers with detailed models of the automobile topology and structural components. The experimental work consisted of wind tunnel tests using a full-scale production vehicle.
Journal Article

Modeling and Optimal Design of All-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Light Trucks

2019-06-06
Abstract Fuel economy and performance are both important in the design of hybrid pickup trucks. All-wheel drive is essential to ensure superior performance compared to two-wheel-drive designs. In this article, as a comprehensive extension work to the article published in ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference [1] on all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid truck, we investigate the modeling, design, and control problem of AWD hybrid vehicles and develop a methodology to identify optimal designs. This methodology 1) formulates an automated modeling process, 2) searches exhaustively through all possible AWD designs, and 3) employs a near-optimal energy management strategy, to obtain a family of designs with superior performance and fuel economy. A design case study for a hybrid Ford F-150 is conducted, to showcase this design process.
Journal Article

Artificial Lightning Tests on Metal and CFRP Automotive Bodies: A Comparative Study

2019-01-07
Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used in automobiles as well as airplanes. Because of its light weight and high strength, CFRP is a good choice for making vehicle bodies lighter, which would improve fuel economy. Conventional metal bodies provide a convenient body return for electric wiring and offer good shielding against electromagnetic fields. Although CFRP is a conductor, its conductivity is much lower than that of metals. Therefore, CFRP bodies are usually not useful for electric wiring. In thunderstorms, an automotive body is considered to be a Faraday cage that protects the vehicle’s occupants from the potential harms of lightning. Before CFRP becomes widely applied to automotive bodies, its electric and electromagnetic properties need to be investigated in order to determine whether it also works as a Faraday cage against lightning. In this article, CFRP and metal body vehicles were tested under artificial lightning.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

2018-07-24
Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
Journal Article

U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Air Conditioning Fuel Use and Impact of Solar/Thermal Control Technologies

2018-12-11
Abstract To reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from mobile air conditioning (A/C) systems, “U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards” identified solar/thermal technologies such as solar control glazings, solar reflective paint, and active and passive cabin ventilation in an off-cycle credit menu. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers developed a sophisticated analysis process to calculate U.S. light-duty A/C fuel use that was used to assess the impact of these technologies, leveraging thermal and vehicle simulation analysis tools developed under previous U.S. Department of Energy projects. Representative U.S. light-duty driving behaviors and weighting factors including time-of-day of travel, trip duration, and time between trips were characterized and integrated into the analysis.
Journal Article

Aging Effects of Catalytic Converters in Diesel Exhaust Gas Systems and Their Influence on Real Driving NOx Emissions for Urban Buses

2018-06-18
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides seems to be the most promising technique to meet prospective emission regulations of diesel-driven commercial vehicles. In the case of developing cost-effective catalytic converters with comparably high activity, selectivity, and resistance against aging, ion-exchanged zeolites play a major role. This study presents, firstly, a brief literature review and subsequently a discussion of an extensive conversion analysis of exemplary Cu/ and Fe/zeolites, as well as a homogeneous admixture of both. The aging stages of SCR catalysts deserve particular attention in this study. In addition, the aging condition of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was analyzed, which influences the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, because the NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio upstream from the SCR converter could be identified as a key factor for low temperature NOx conversion.
Journal Article

Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

2018-07-24
Abstract Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of In-Cylinder Pressures to Validate High-Range VCR

2018-10-22
Abstract This article serves as a proof-of-concept and feasibility analysis regarding a variable compression ratio (VCR) engine design utilizing an exhaust valve opening during the compression stroke to vary the compression ratio instead of the traditional method of changing the cylinder or piston geometry patented by Ford, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Peugeot, Gomecsys, et al. [1]. In this concept, an additional exhaust valve opening was used to reduce the virtual compression ratio of the engine, without geometric changes. A computational fluid dynamic model in ANSYS Forte was used to simulate a single-cylinder, cold flow, four-stroke, direct injection engine cycle. In this model, the engine was simulated at a compression ratio of 10:1. Then, the model was modified to a compression ratio of 17:1. Then, an additional valve opening at the end of the compression stroke was added to the 17:1 high compression model.
Journal Article

Development of a Catalytic Converter Cool-Down Model to Investigate Intermittent Engine Operation in HEVs

2018-10-29
Abstract Catalytic converters, a primary component in most automotive emissions control systems, do not function well until they are heated substantially above ambient temperature. As the primary energy for catalyst heating comes from engine exhaust gases, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that have the potential for short and infrequent use of their onboard engine may have limited energy available for catalytic converter heating. This article presents a comparison of multiple hybrid supervisory control strategies to determine the ability to avoid engine cold starts during a blended charge-depleting propulsion mode. Full vehicle and catalytic converter simulations are performed in parallel with engine dynamometer testing in order to examine catalyst temperature variations during the course of the US06 City drive cycle. Emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) calculations are also performed to determine the effective number of engine starts during the drive cycle.
Journal Article

Carbon Monoxide Density Pattern Mapping from Recreational Boat Testing

2018-10-04
Abstract Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas can cause health risks for users of recreational boats and watercraft. Activities such as waterskiing, wakeboarding, tubing, and wakesurfing primarily utilize gasoline engine-driven vessels which produce CO as a combustion by-product. Recent watersports trends show an increase in popularity of activities which take place closer to the stern of the boat (such as wakesurfing) as compared to traditional waterskiing and wakeboarding. Advancements in gas emissions treatment in marine engine exhaust system designs have reduced risks for CO exposure in some boats. This article presents results from on-water testing of three recreational boats, reports average and maximum values of CO levels under various conditions, and exhibits mapping of the density of CO relative to the stern of the test vessels.
Journal Article

Analysis of Evaporative and Exhaust-Related On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Readiness Monitors and DTCs Using I/M and Roadside Data

2018-03-01
Abstract Under contract to the EPA, Eastern Research Group analyzed light-duty vehicle OBD monitor readiness and diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) using inspection and maintenance (I/M) data from four states. Results from roadside pullover emissions and OBD tests were also compared with same-vehicle I/M OBD results from one of the states. Analysis focused on the evaporative emissions control (evap) system, the catalytic converter (catalyst), the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and the oxygen sensor and oxygen sensor heater (O2 system). Evap and catalyst monitors had similar overall readiness rates (90% to 95%), while the EGR and O2 systems had higher readiness rates (95% to 98%). Approximately 0.7% to 2.5% of inspection cycles with a “ready” evap monitor had at least one stored evap DTC, but DTC rates were under 1% for the catalyst and EGR systems, and under 1.1% for the O2 system, in the states with enforced OBD programs.
Journal Article

Transient Operation and Over-Dilution Mitigation for Low-Pressure EGR Systems in Spark-Ignition Engines

2018-09-17
Abstract Low-Pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-cEGR) is proven to be an effective technology for fuel efficiency improvement in turbocharged spark-ignition (SI) engines. Aiming to fully exploit the EGR benefits, new challenges are introduced that require more complex and robust control systems and strategies. One of the most important restrictions of LP-cEGR is the transient response, since long air-EGR flow paths introduce significant transport delays between the EGR valve and the cylinders. High dilution generally increases efficiency, but can lead to cycle-by-cycle combustion variation. Especially in SI engines, higher-than-requested EGR dilution may lead to combustion instabilities and misfires. Considering the long EGR evacuation period, one of the most challenging transient events is throttle tip-out, where the engine operation shifts from a high-load point with high dilution tolerance to a low-load point where EGR tolerance is significantly reduced.
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