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Journal Article

Improvement in DCT Shaft Lubrication through CFD Method

Abstract Dual-clutch transmission (DCT) output shaft 1 (OS1) mount position is higher than the transmission lubricant level. Needle bearings and idler gears on OS1-insufficient lubrication issues and the transmission lubrication system were investigated. In the design model, the transmission housing lubrication channel and oil guide component design were studied. For numerical analysis, the STAR-CCM+ software was used to simulate transmission internal complex oil-gas multiphase transient flow morphology that monitored the four bore oil churning volumes of OS1. Finally, lubrication test results affirm simulation predictions that idler gears, needle bearings, and synchronizer rings on OS1 obtain sufficient lubrication provided that a reliable method to inspect lubrication design functions is available.
Journal Article

Dynamic Particle Generation/Shedding in Lubricating Greases Used in Aerospace Applications

Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the phenomenon of Dynamic Particle Generation in lubricating greases that are used in a variety of critical Aerospace mechanisms. Particle Generation occurs in bearings, ball screws, and other mechanical devices where dynamic conditions are present. This should not be confused with outgassing as particle generation is unrelated to the pressure effects on a system. This is a critical factor in many systems as particle generation can contaminate systems or processes causing them to fail. These failures can lead to excessive costs, production failure, and equipment damage. In this study, several greases made from Multiplyalkylated Cyclopentane and Perfluoropolyether base fluids were tested to evaluate their particle generation properties. This particle generation phenomenon was studied using a custom test rig utilizing a high precision cleanroom ball-screw to simulate true application conditions.
Journal Article

Determination of Influence of Parameters on Undercarriage Shock Absorber

Abstract The simple oleo pneumatic (shock absorber) model was developed using the available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to understand how various parameters influence the performance of the undercarriage shock absorber. The study is divided into two parts: first part is focused on the influence of orifice geometry and the second part of the study is focused on the other parameters including chamber geometry. Both the studies are carried out using design of experiments (DOE) for the same output characteristics (response). In this study, the impacts on the flow behavior due to the orifice shapes are also studied. The results and the other outcomes are shown in the form of DOE parameters such as main effect plots and interaction plots.
Journal Article

Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

Abstract An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.
Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fatigue Life of Wheels in Commercial Vehicles

Abstract In India, vehicle population increases every day along with road accidents by 2.5% every year. About 7.7% of accidents are caused by wheel separation, 60% of which are due to nut-related problems. Wheel separations in vehicles occur due to fastener issues and fatigue failures in bolts. A study of the reasons for and mechanisms of nut loosening showed that left-hand side wheels detached and fracture failure occurred in right-hand side studs. Fatigue life of wheels with Nord-Lock washer and without washer is determined by using numerical analysis as per the IS 9438 cornering fatigue test. These numerical results are compared with experimental results.
Journal Article

Classification of Contact Forces in Human-Robot Collaborative Manufacturing Environments

Abstract This paper presents a machine learning application of the force/torque sensor in a human-robot collaborative manufacturing scenario. The purpose is to simplify the programming for physical interactions between the human operators and industrial robots in a hybrid manufacturing cell which combines several robotic applications, such as parts manipulation, assembly, sealing and painting, etc. A multiclass classifier using Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) is first introduced in a robotic application for discriminating five different contact states w.r.t. the force/torque data. A systematic approach to train machine-learning based classifiers is presented, thus opens a door for enabling LightGBM with robotic data process. The total task time is reduced largely because force transitions can be detected on-the-fly. Experiments on an ABB force sensor and an industrial robot demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
Journal Article

Machining Quality Analysis of Powertrain Components Using Plane Strain Finite Element Cutting Models

Abstract Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of metal cutting is largely the domain of research organizations. Despite significant advances towards accurately modelling metal machining processes, industrial adoption of these advances has been limited. Academic studies, which mainly focused on orthogonal cutting, fail to address this discrepancy. This paper bridges the gap between simplistic orthogonal cutting models and the complex components typical in the manufacturing sector. This paper outlines how to utilize results from orthogonal cutting simulations to predict industrially relevant performance measures efficiently. In this approach, using 2D FEA cutting models a range of feed, speed and rake angles are simulated. Cutting force coefficients are then fit to the predicted cutting forces. Using these coefficients, forces for 3D cutting geometries are calculated.
Journal Article

Modeling the Effect of Foam Density and Strain Rate on the Compressive Response of Polyurethane Foams

Abstract Due to the high deformability and energy dissipation capacity of polymer foams in compression, they are used in automotive applications to mitigate mechanical impacts. The mechanical response of the foams is strongly affected by their density. Phenomenological relations have been proposed to describe the effect of foam density on their stress-strain response in compression at a fixed loading rate and the effect of loading rate at a fixed foam density. In the present work, these empirical approaches are combined allowing for the dependence of loading rate effect in compression on foam density. The minimum experimental data set for calibration of the proposed model consists of compression test results at two different loading rates of foams with two different densities.
Journal Article

Structural Optimization of a Pickup Frame Combining Thickness, Shape and Feature Parameters for Lightweighting

Abstract The methods for improving the torsion stiffness of a pickup chassis frame were discussed, including increasing the part thickness on frame, enlarging the cross section of rails, and adding bulkhead feature inside the rails. Sizing optimization was conducted to get the optimal thickness configuration for frame parts and meet the siffness requirement. The cross section of frame rails were parameterized and shape optimization was conduted to get the optimal rail cross sections for stiffness improvement. Additional bulkheads were added to the frame rails, and sizing optimization conducted to find the most effective bulkheads to add and their optimal gauge. A material efficiency ratio μ is used to evaluate the efficiency of a design change with respect to torsion stiffness. Among those torsion improvement methods, adding bulkhead feature gives the highest material efficiency ratio, but the stiffness improvement range is very limited.
Journal Article

Utilization of Man Power, Increment in Productivity by Using Lean Management in Kitting Area of Engine Manufacturing Facility - A Case Study

Abstract The project of lean management is implemented in General Motors India Private Limited, Pune, India plant. The aim of the project is to improve manpower utilization by removing seven types of wastes using lean management system in kitting process. Lean manufacturing or management is the soul of Just-In-Time philosophy and is not new in Automobile manufacture sector where it born. Kitting area is analogs to the modern supermarket where required components, parts, consumables, subassemblies are kept in bins. These bins are placed in racks so that choosing right part at right time can be achieved easily. Video recording, in-person observation, feedback from online operators and other departments such as maintenance, control, supply chain etc. are taken. It is observed that the work content performed by current strength of operators can be performed by less number of operators. After executing this project, it was possible to reduce one operator and increase manpower utilization.
Journal Article

Electric Vehicle with Multi-Speed Transmission: A Review on Performances and Complexities

Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) with multi-speed transmission offer improved performances compared to those with single speed transmission system in terms of top speed, fast acceleration, or gradeability along with driving range. In this study, relevant literature is extensively analyzed to explore the performances and associated complexities with multi-speed automatic manual/mechanical transmission (AMT) system in EVs. In EV powertrain, the only torque generator component is electric motor, which is not equally efficient throughout wider speed range. To the other end, vehicles need to run at different speeds in diverse driving conditions. The study shows that multi-speed transmission system enables efficient operation of electric motor by choosing an appropriate gear at different driving torque-speed demands and thus contributes to achieve desired vehicle performances at minimum energy consumption.
Journal Article

Railway Fastener Positioning Method Based on Improved Census Transform

Abstract In view of the fact that the current positioning methods of railway fasteners are easily affected by illumination intensity, bright spots, and shadows, a positioning method with relative grayscale invariance is proposed. The median filter is used to remove the noise in order to reduce the adverse effects on the subsequent processing results, and the baffle seat edge features are enhanced by improved Census transform. The mean-shift clustering algorithm is used to classify the edges to weaken the interference by short lines. Finally, the Hough transform is used to quickly extract the linear feature of the baffle seat edge and achieve the exact position of the fastener with the prior knowledge. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately locate and have good adaptability under different illumination conditions, and the position accuracy is increased by 4.3% and 8%, respectively, in sunny and rainy days.
Journal Article

Automotive Components Fatigue and Durability Testing with Flexible Vibration Testing Table

Abstract Accelerated durability testing of automotive components has become a major interest for the ground vehicle Industries. This approach can predict the life characteristics of the vehicle by testing fatigue failure at higher stress level within a shorter period of time. Current tradition of laboratory testing includes a rigid fixture to mount the component with the shaker table. This approach is not accurate for the durability testing of most vehicle components especially for those parts connected directly with the tire and suspension system. In this work, the effects of the elastic support on modal parameters of the tested structure, such as natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, as well as the estimated structural fatigue life in the durability testing were studied through experimental testing and numerical simulations.
Journal Article

Active Suspension: Future Lessons from The Past

Abstract Active suspension was a topic of great research interest near the end of last century. Ultimately broad bandwidth active systems were found to be too expensive in terms of both energy and financial cost. This past work, developing the ultimate vehicle suspension, has relevance for today’s vehicle designers working on more efficient and effective suspension systems for practical vehicles. From a control theorist’s perspective, it provides an interesting case study in the use of “practical” knowledge to allow “better” performance than predicted by theoretically optimal linear controllers. A brief history of active suspension will be introduced. Peter Wright, David Williams, and others at Lotus developed their Lotus modal control concept. In a parallel effort, Dean Karnopp presented the notion of inertial (Skyhook) damping. These concepts will be compared, the combination of these two distinctly different efforts will be discussed, and eventual vehicle results presented.
Journal Article

Increased Thread Load Capability of Bolted Joints in Light Weight Design

Abstract Within the scope of today’s product development in automotive engineering, the aim is to produce lighter and solid parts with higher capabilities. On the one hand lightweight materials such as aluminum or magnesium are used, but on the other hand, increased stresses on these components cause higher bolt forces in joining technology. Therefore screws with very high strength rise in importance. At the same time, users need reliable and effective design methods to develop new products at reasonable cost in short time. The bolted joints require a special structural design of the thread engagement in low-strength components. Hence an extension of existing dimensioning of the thread engagement for modern requirements is necessary. In the context of this contribution, this will be addressed in two ways: on one hand extreme situations (low strength nut components and high-strength fasteners) are considered.
Journal Article

Metallurgical Approach for Improving Life and Brinell Resistance in Wheel Hub Units

Abstract Raceway Brinell damage is one major cause of wheel bearing (hub unit) noise during driving. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) customers have asked continuously for its improvement to the wheel bearing supply base. Generally, raceway Brinelling in a wheel hub unit is a consequence of metallic yielding from high external loading in a severe environment usually involving a side impact to the wheel and tire. Thus, increasing the yielding strength of steel can lead to higher resistance to Brinell damage. Both the outer ring and hub based on Generation 3 (Gen. 3) wheel unit are typically manufactured using by AISI 1055 bearing quality steel (BQS); these components undergo controlled cooling to establish the core properties then case hardening via induction hardening (IH). This paper presents a modified grade of steel and its IH design that targets longer life and improves Brinell resistance developed by ILJIN AMRC (Advanced Materials Research Center).
Journal Article

Development and Validation Procedure of a 1D Predictive Model for Simulation of a Common Rail Fuel Injection System Controlled with a Fuel Metering Valve

Abstract A fully predictive one-dimensional model of a Common Rail injection apparatus for diesel passenger cars is presented and discussed. The apparatus includes high-pressure pump, high-pressure pipes, injectors, rail and a fuel-metering valve that is used to control the rail pressure level. A methodology for separately assessing the accuracy of the single submodels of the components is developed and proposed. The complete model of the injection system is finally validated by means of a comparison with experimental high-pressure and injected flow-rate time histories. The predictive model is applied to examine the fluid dynamics of the injection system during either steady-state or transient operations. The influence of the pump delivered flow-rate on the rail-pressure time history and on the injection performance is analysed for different energizing times and nominal rail pressure values.
Journal Article

Conditioning Turbocharger Compressor Map Data for Use in Engine Performance Simulation

Abstract Turbocharger compressor maps are used in engine performance modeling and simulation to predict engine air system operating conditions. Errors in compressor map data can result in inaccurate engine performance prediction. A method is described for conditioning compressor map data for use in engine performance simulation, by detecting and replacing suspect data points, and interpolating and extrapolating the map data. The method first characterizes enthalpy rise through the compressor, after removing data points likely influenced by heat transfer from turbine to compressor, using energy transfer coefficient vs. impeller outlet flow coefficient. This is done concurrently with estimating impeller outlet conditions using simplified geometry assumptions and a modified definition for compressor stage reaction.
Journal Article

Energy Consumption Test and Analysis Methodology for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Engine Accessories

Abstract Fuel economy is a crucial parameter in long-haulage heavy-duty vehicles. Researchers tended to focus initially on engine combustion efficiency, while modern researchers turn their attention to the energy consumption of engine accessories in an attempt to enhance fuel economy. The accessories investigated in this study include the cooling fan, water pump, air compressor, power steering pump, air-conditioning (AC) compressor, and generator. Normally, accessory energy consumption analysis is based on rig data and simulation results. Here, we focus on the disparate test environments between the rig and vehicle to establish a novel steady power test method; the proposed method provides accurate accessory power data under different working conditions. A typical highway driving cycle is selected to collect accessory duty-cycle. The heavy-duty vehicle accessories’ energy consumption distribution under highway road conditions is obtained through the repeated road tests.