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Journal Article

Improvement in Gear Shift Comfort by Reduction in Double Bump Force of Passenger Vehicles

2017-10-08
Abstract In today’s competitive automobile market, driver comfort is at utmost importance and the bar is being raised continuously. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gear can result into customer dissatisfaction and will impact the brand image. While there are continual efforts being taken by most of the car manufactures, “Double Bump” in gearshift has remained as a pain area and impact severely on the shift feel. This is more prominent in North-South (N-S) transmissions. In this paper ‘Double Bump’ is a focus area and a mathematical / analytical approach is demonstrated by analyzing ‘impacting parameters’ and establishing their co-relation with double bump. Additionally, the results are also verified with a simulation model.
Journal Article

Driveline Ratio Selection and Shift Map Optimization for Automatic Transmission Vehicle at Concept Phase through Simulations

2017-10-08
Abstract Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
Journal Article

Extending the Magic Formula Tire Model for Large Inflation Pressure Changes by Using Measurement Data from a Corner Module Test Rig

2018-03-05
Abstract Since the tire inflation pressure has a significant influence on safety, comfort and environmental behavior of a vehicle, the choice of the optimal inflation pressure is always a conflict of aims. The development of a highly dynamic Tire Pressure Control System (TPCS) can reduce the conflict of minimal rolling resistance and maximal traction. To study the influence of the tire inflation pressure on longitudinal tire characteristics under laboratory conditions, an experimental sensitivity analysis is performed using a multivalent usable Corner Module Test Rig (CMTR) developed by the Automotive Engineering Group at Technische Universität Ilmenau. The test rig is designed to analyze suspension system and tire characteristics on a roller of the recently installed 4 chassis roller dynamometer. Camber angle, toe angle and wheel load can be adjusted continuously. In addition, it is possible to control the temperature of the test environment between −20 °C and +45 °C.
Journal Article

Statistical Modeling of Plate Clearance Distribution for Wet Clutch Drag Analysis

2017-10-08
Abstract Wet clutch packs are the key component for gear shifting in the step-ratio automatic transmission system. The clutch plates are coupled or de-coupled to alter gear ratios based on the driver’s actions and vehicle operating conditions. The frictional interfaces between clutch plates are lubricated with automatic transmission fluid (ATF) for both thermal and friction management. In a 10-speed transmission, there may be as many as 6 clutch packs. Under typical driving conditions, 2 to 3 clutch packs are open, shearing ATF and contributing to energy loss. There is an opportunity to improve fuel economy by reducing the associated viscous drag. An important factor that directly affects clutch drag is the clearance between rotating plates. The axial position of clutch plates changes continuously during operation. It is known in practice that not only the total clearance, but also its distribution between the plates affects the viscous drag.
Journal Article

Innovative Approach of Wedge Washer to Avoid Bolt Loosening in Automotive Applications

2017-10-08
Abstract Automotive vehicle includes various systems like engine, transmission, exhaust, air intake, cooling and many more systems. No doubt the performance of individual system depends upon their core design. But for performance, the system needs to be fastened properly. In automotive, most of the joints used fasteners which helps in serviceability of the components. There are more than thousands of fasteners used in the vehicle. At various locations, we found issue of bolt loosening and because of this design intent performance has not met by the system. During product development of ECS (Engine cooling system), various issues reported to loosening the bolt. The pre-mature failure of bolt loosening, increases the interest in young engineers for understanding the behavior of fastener in vehicle running conditions. This paper focuses on the design of wedge shape of washer to avoid bolt loosening.
Journal Article

Performance Margin for Geometric Road Design

2018-08-08
Abstract Although several methods exist for measuring the performance capability of a vehicle, many require detailed knowledge of the forces acting at each tire contact patch or do not account for both the vehicle dynamics and the road geometry. A simple vehicle model is proposed to estimate the upper limit of performance capability for a given operating condition (the Performance Envelope) based on the Effective Friction and the road geometry (slope and cross-slope). The Effective Friction accounts for both the vehicle dynamics and road surface properties and is estimated, through simulation or experimentation, using two standard vehicle dynamics tests: constant radius cornering and straight-line braking. The Performance Margin is defined as the additional performance capability available before the vehicle reaches the Performance Envelope, both represented in the intuitive units of gravity.
Journal Article

Computational-Based Aerodynamic Design for a Formula SAE Vehicle

2018-03-01
Abstract The computational analysis and design of an aerodynamics system for a Formula SAE vehicle is presented. The work utilizes a stochastic-approximation optimization (SAO) process coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. The methodology is presented in a general manner, and is applicable to other complex parametrizable systems. A mix of discrete and continuous variables is established to define the airfoil profile, location, sizing and angle of all wing elements. Objectives are established to maximize downforce, minimize drag and maintain a target vehicle aerodynamic balance. A combination of successive 2D and 3D CFD evaluations have achieved vehicle aerodynamic performance targets at a minimal computational cost.
Journal Article

Passive Flow Control on a Ground-Effect Diffuser Using an Inverted Wing

2018-08-13
Abstract In this experimental and computational study a novel application of aerodynamic principles in altering the pressure recovery behavior of an automotive-type ground-effect diffuser was investigated as a means of enhancing downforce. The proposed way of augmenting diffuser downforce production is to induce in its pressure recovery action a second pressure drop and an accompanying pressure rise region close to the diffuser exit. To investigate this concept with a diffuser-equipped bluff body, an inverted wing was situated within the diffuser flow channel, close to the diffuser exit. The wing’s suction surface acts as a passive flow control device by increasing streamwise flow velocity and reducing static pressure near the diffuser exit. Therefore, a second-stage pressure recovery develops along the diffuser’s overall pressure recovery curve as the flow travels from the diffuser’s low pressure, high velocity inlet to its high pressure, low velocity exit.
Journal Article

Application of a New Method for Comparing the Overall Energy Consumption of Different Automotive Thermal Management Systems

2018-10-03
Abstract This article applies a new method for the evaluation and estimation of real-life energy consumption of two different thermal management systems based on driving behavior in the course of the day. Recent attempts to find energy-efficient thermal management systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have led to using secondary loop systems as an alternative approach for meeting dynamic heating and cooling demands and reducing refrigerant charge. However, the additional layer of thermal resistance, which influences the system’s transient behavior as well as passenger compartment comfort during cool-down or heat-up, makes it difficult to estimate the annual energy consumption. In this article, the overall energy consumption of a conventional and a secondary loop system is compared using a new method for describing actual customers’ driving behavior in the course of the day.
Journal Article

Comparison of Various Drag Reduction Devices and Their Aerodynamic Effects on the DrivAer Model

2018-07-05
Abstract In this study, two types of drag reduction devices (a horizontal plate, and a vertical plate) are used to weaken the downwash of the upper flow and c-pillar vortex of the DrivAer notchback model driving at high speed (140 km/h). By analyzing and comparing 15 cases in total, the aerodynamic drag reduction mechanism can be used in the development of vehicles. First, various CFD simulation conditions of a baseline model were compared to determine the analysis condition that efficiently calculates the correct aerodynamic drag. The vertical plate and horizontal plate applied in the path of the c-pillar vortex and downwash suppressed vortex development and induced rapid dissipation. As a result, the application of a 50-mm wedge-shaped vertical plate to the trunk weakened the vortex and reduced the drag by 3.3% by preventing the side flow from entering the trunk top.
Journal Article

Force Transmission Characteristics for a Loaded Structural-Acoustic Tire Model

2018-10-23
Abstract Concerns about tire noise radiation arise partly from city traffic planning, environmental protection, and pedestrian safety standpoints, while from the vehicle passengers’ perspective, noise transmitted to the vehicle interior is more important. It is the latter concern that is addressed in this article. Sound-absorbing materials generally offer good absorption at higher frequencies, but the reduction of relatively low frequency, structure-borne tire noise is a continuing focus of many auto manufacturers. A tire’s internal, acoustic cavity resonance is a very strong contributing factor to tire-related structure-borne noise, and it can easily be perceived by passengers. Some reduction of vehicle cabin noise can be achieved through the insertion of sound-absorbing material in the tires. However, apart from the additional cost for such tires, there is also an increased complexity when repairing them because of the need to avoid damaging the sound-absorptive lining.
Journal Article

Vehicle Stability Control through Optimized Coordination of Active Rear Steering and Differential Driving/Braking

2018-07-05
Abstract In this article, a hierarchical coordinated control algorithm for integrating active rear steering and driving/braking force distribution (ARS+D/BFD) was presented. The upper-level control was synthesized to generate the required rear steering angle and external yaw moment by using a sliding-mode controller. In the lower-level controller, a control allocation algorithm considering driving/braking actuators and tire forces constraints was designed to assign the desired yaw moment to the four wheels. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints were defined and solved analytically. Finally, computer simulation results suggest that the proposed hierarchical control scheme was able to help to achieve substantial enhancements in handling performance and stability.
Journal Article

Steady Aeroelastic Response Prediction and Validation for Automobile Hoods

2018-07-10
Abstract The pursuit of improved fuel economy through weight reduction, reduced manufacturing costs, and improved crash safety can result in increased compliance in automobile structures. However, with compliance comes an increased susceptibility to aerodynamic and vibratory loads. The hood in particular withstands considerable aerodynamic force at highway speeds, creating the potential for significant aeroelastic response that may adversely impact customer satisfaction and perception of vehicle quality. This work seeks an improved understanding in computational and experimental study of fluid-structure interactions between automobile hoods and the surrounding internal and external flow. Computational analysis was carried out using coupled CFD-FEM solvers with detailed models of the automobile topology and structural components. The experimental work consisted of wind tunnel tests using a full-scale production vehicle.
Journal Article

Introducing the Modified Tire Power Loss and Resistant Force Regarding Longitudinal Slip

2018-04-18
Abstract Investigation of vehicle resistant forces and power losses is of crucial importance owing to current state of energy consumption in transport sector. Meanwhile, considerable portion of resistant forces in a ground vehicle is traced back to tires. Pneumatic tires are known to be a source of energy dissipation as a consequence of their viscoelastic nature. The current study aims to provide a modification to tire resistance by considering the power loss in a tire due to longitudinal slip. The modified tire resistance is comprised of rolling resistance and a newly introduced resistance caused by tire slip, called slip resistance. The physical model is chosen for parameters sensitivity study since the tractive force is described in this model via tangible physical parameters, e.g. tire tangential stiffness, coefficient of friction, and contact patch length.
Journal Article

A Kinematic Modeling Framework for Prediction of Instantaneous Status of Towing Vehicle Systems

2018-04-18
Abstract A kinematic modeling framework was established to predict status (position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and shape) of a towing vehicle system with different driver inputs. This framework consists of three components: (1) a state space model to decide position and velocity for the vehicle system based on Newton’s second law; (2) an angular acceleration transferring model, which leads to a hypothesis that the each towed unit follows the same path as the towing vehicle; and (3) a polygon model to draw instantaneous polygons to envelop the entire system at any time point.
Journal Article

Robust Design for Steering Mechanism Based on Preference Function

2018-03-01
Abstract In order to improve robustness of vehicle dynamic performance, a steering mechanism model is proposed with alignment parameters of front wheel based on preference function method. In the steering mechanism model controllable variables include the trapezoid connection length, the base angle of steering trapezoid, the kingpin inclination angle, caster, camber and uncontrollable variables include load and initial braking velocity. Optimization objective is some vehicle dynamic performance. In the preference function method the individual performance preference and preference aggregation in designing variable space and performance variable space are analyzed. The individual performance preference includes the controllable variable preference, noise factor preference and optimization objective preference. The aggregation function is developed by aggregating all the individual performance preferences.
Journal Article

Exhaust Manifold Thermal Assessment with Ambient Heat Transfer Coefficient Optimization

2018-06-04
Abstract Exhaust manifolds are one of the most important components on the engine assembly, which is mounted on engine cylinder head. Exhaust manifolds connect exhaust ports of cylinders to the turbine for turbocharged diesel engine therefore they play a significant role in the performance of engine system. Exhaust manifolds are subjected to very harsh thermal loads; extreme heating under very high temperatures and cooling under low temperatures. Therefore designing a durable exhaust manifold is a challenging task. Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an effective tool to drive an exhaust manifold design at the early stage of engine development. Thus advanced CAE methodologies are required for the accurate prediction of temperature distribution. However, at the end of the development process, for the design verification purposes, various tests have to be carried out in engine dynamometer cells under severe operating conditions.
Journal Article

Design, Analysis, Simulation and Validation of Automobile Suspension System Using Drive-Shaft as a Suspension Link

2018-04-18
Abstract With increasing demands for higher performance along with lower vehicle emissions, lightweight vehicle system construction is key to meet such demands. Suspension and transmission assemblies being the key areas for weight-reduction, we have designed a revolutionary new type of suspension system which combines the suspension links with the powertrain assembly and thus completely eliminates one suspension member. Less weight means lower fuel-consumption with improved passenger-comfort and road-holding due to reduction in unsprung mass. Elimination of a suspension link reduces the overall cost of material, machining & fabrication making our design cost-effective than existing setups. This paper deals with the design and implementation of of our concept. A working prototype is also constructed and tested which completely validates our design.
Journal Article

Reduced-Order Modeling of Vehicle Aerodynamics via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

2019-10-21
Abstract Aerodynamic optimization of the exterior vehicle shape is a highly multidisciplinary task involving, among others, styling and aerodynamics. The often differing priorities of these two disciplines give rise to iterative loops between stylists and aerodynamicists. Reduced-order modeling (ROM) has the potential to shortcut these loops by enabling aerodynamic evaluations in real time. In this study, we aim to assess the performance of ROM via proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for a real-life industrial test case, with focus on the achievable accuracy for the prediction of fields and aerodynamic coefficients. To that end, we create a training data set based on a six-dimensional parameterization of a Volkswagen passenger production car by computing 100 variants with Detached-Eddy simulations (DES).
Journal Article

Overset Mesh-Based Computational Investigations on the Aerodynamics of a Generic Car Model in Proximity to a Side-Wall

2019-10-21
Abstract This article discusses an approach to simulating a generic idealized car model (Ahmed body) moving in close proximity to a side-wall, using a transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. This phenomenon is very important in motorsports, where racing close to the safety barrier is common. Driving in close proximity to a side-wall alters the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle significantly; however, only a handful of published works exist in this area. Additionally, the experimental studies conducted in the past suffer from certain inadequacies, especially in terms of simulating the side-wall. This casts some uncertainty as to the relevance of these studies to the real-world problem. The present study attempts to imitate the real-world flow phenomenon by taking a nontraditional CFD approach of translating the body relative to the stationary surrounding fluid and side-wall instead of the classical method of flowing air over a stationary vehicle model.
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