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Journal Article

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Subsystem

Abstract Aircraft subsystem development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight-worthy system. The subsystem needs to be verified for a massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as part of the environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of subsystems with various kinds of power disturbances and to determine the ability of a subsystem to withstand PQ disturbances. The subsystem being designed should be reliable enough to handle PQ anomalies. A PQ test results in an enormous amount of data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test and can be identified as big data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as part of post-processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and that the functional performance of the subsystem is met.
Journal Article

Evaluating How Functional Performance in Aerospace Components Is Affected by Geometric Variation

Abstract Geometric variation stemming from manufacturing can be a limiting factor for the quality and reliability of products. Therefore, manufacturing assessments are increasingly being performed during the early stages of product development. In the aerospace industry, products are complex engineering systems, the development of which require multidisciplinary expertise. In such contexts, there are significant barriers against assessing the effects of geometric variation on the functionality of products. To overcome these barriers, this article introduces a new methodology consisting of a modelling approach linked to a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The modelling approach is based on the parametric point method, which allows point-scanned data to be transferred to parameterised CAD models. In a case study, the methodology is implemented in an industrial setting.
Journal Article

Data Manipulation Approach and Parameters Interrelationships of the High-Pressure Torsion for AA6061-15%SiCp Composite

Abstract On contrast to the qualitative approach used in the majority of researches, an evaluation quantitative approach is introduced not only to depict the plain individual effect of the influence of the high-pressure torsion (HPT) processing conditions on the microstructural and Hv-values of the ultra-hard nanostructured AA6061-15%SiCp composite but also to detect its possible parameters functional interaction and nonlinear trends involved. Experimental data were used to establish many adequate and significant empirical models to detect and to evaluate the mutual functional interrelationships between the Hv-values of the composite, each of HPT processing pressure, and number of revolutions. For each group of interrelated parameters, the preferred selected developed model has been exploited to generate the relevant contours and response surface graphs.
Journal Article

In-Plane Flexible Ring Tire Model Parameter Identification: Optimization Algorithms

Abstract Parameter identification is an important part of tire model development. The prediction performance of a tire model highly depends on the identified parameter values of the tire model. Different optimization algorithms may yield different tire parameters with different computational accuracy. It is essential to find out which optimization algorithm is most likely to generate a set of parameters with the best prediction performance. In this study, four different MATLAB® optimization algorithms, including fminsearchcon, patternsearch, genetic algorithm (GA), and particleswarm, are used to identify the parameters of a newly proposed in-plane flexible ring tire model. The reference data used for parameter identification are obtained through a ADAMS FTire® virtual cleat test. After parameters are identified based on above four algorithms, their performances are compared in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and robustness.
Journal Article

Automotive Components Fatigue and Durability Testing with Flexible Vibration Testing Table

Abstract Accelerated durability testing of automotive components has become a major interest for the ground vehicle Industries. This approach can predict the life characteristics of the vehicle by testing fatigue failure at higher stress level within a shorter period of time. Current tradition of laboratory testing includes a rigid fixture to mount the component with the shaker table. This approach is not accurate for the durability testing of most vehicle components especially for those parts connected directly with the tire and suspension system. In this work, the effects of the elastic support on modal parameters of the tested structure, such as natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, as well as the estimated structural fatigue life in the durability testing were studied through experimental testing and numerical simulations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Thermal Roll Formed Thick Composite Panels Using Surface NDT Methods

Abstract Inspection of Composite panels is vital to the assessment of their ability to be fit for purpose. Conventional methods such as X-ray CT and Ultrasonic scanning can be used, however, these are often expensive and time consuming processes. In this paper we investigate the use of off-the-shelf Non-Destructive Test, NDT, equipment utilizing Fringe projection hardware and open source software to rapidly evaluate a series of composite panels. These results are then verified using destructive analysis of the panels to prove the reliability of the rapid NDT methods for use with carbon composite panels. This process allows us to quickly identify regions of geometric intolerance or formed defects without the use of expensive sub-surface scanning systems, enabling a fast and cost effective initial part evaluation system. The focus of this testing series is on 6mm thick pre-preg carbon-epoxy composite laminates that have been laid up using AFP and formed using TRF.
Journal Article

Separable and Standard Monte Carlo Simulation of Linear Dynamic Systems Using Combined Approximations

Abstract Reliability analysis of a large-scale system under random dynamic loads can be a very time-consuming task since it requires repeated studies of the system. In many engineering problems, for example, wave loads on an offshore platform, the excitation loads are defined using a power spectral density (PSD) function. For a given PSD function, one needs to generate many time histories to make sure the excitation load is modeled accurately. Global and local approximation methods are available to predict the system response efficiently. Each way has their advantages and shortcomings. The combined approximations (CA) method is an efficient method, which combines the advantages of local and global approximations. This work demonstrates two methodologies that utilize CA to reduce the cost of crude or separable Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) of linear dynamic systems when the excitation loads are defined using PSD functions.
Journal Article

A Model Study for Prediction of Performance of Automotive Interior Coatings: Effect of Cross-Link Density and Film Thickness on Resistance to Solvents and Chemicals

Abstract Automotive interior coatings for flexible and rigid substrates represent an important segment within automotive coating space. These coatings are used to protect plastic substrates from mechanical and chemical damage, in addition to providing colour and design aesthetics. These coatings are expected to resist aggressive chemicals, fluids, and stains while maintaining their long-term physical appearance and mechanical integrity. Designing such coatings, therefore, poses significant challenges to the formulators in effectively balancing these properties. Among many factors affecting coating properties, the cross-link density (XLD) and solubility parameter (δ) of coatings are the most predominant factors.
Journal Article

Rapid Methodology to Simultaneous Quantification of Differ Antioxidants in Biodiesel Using Infrared Spectrometry and Multivariate Calibration

Abstract The aim of this work is to quantify three different antioxidants in biodiesel - Santoflex, baynox, and tocopherol-using Middle Infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. For the construction of the models, 28 samples containing an antioxidant in the range of 0.1 to 500 mg/kg in biodiesel were used. We developed three models based on PLS 1 multivariate calibration method to quantify each of the three antioxidants separately and a model based on PLS 2 method to quantify simultaneously all the antioxidants. All models were compared to the values of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and validation (RMSEP). For the baynox, santoflex, and tocopherol antioxidants quantification using PLS 1, the values of RMSEC and RMSEP were 37.2, 18.8, 9.0 mg/kg, and 26.7, 21.1, 68.6 mg/kg, respectively.
Journal Article

Vulnerability of FlexRay and Countermeasures

Abstract The importance of in-vehicle network security has increased with an increase in automated and connected vehicles. Hence, many attacks and countermeasures have been proposed to secure the controller area network (CAN), which is an existent in-vehicle network protocol. At the same time, new protocols-such as FlexRay and Ethernet-which are faster and more reliable than CAN have also been proposed. European OEMs have adopted FlexRay as a control network that can perform the fundamental functions of a vehicle. However, there are few studies regarding FlexRay security. In particular, studies on attacks against FlexRay are limited to theoretical studies or simulation-based experiments. Hence, the vulnerability of FlexRay is unclear. Understanding this vulnerability is necessary for the application of countermeasures and improving the security of future vehicles. In this article, we highlight the vulnerability of FlexRay found in the experiments conducted on a real FlexRay network.