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Journal Article

Innovative Approach of Wedge Washer to Avoid Bolt Loosening in Automotive Applications

2017-10-08
Abstract Automotive vehicle includes various systems like engine, transmission, exhaust, air intake, cooling and many more systems. No doubt the performance of individual system depends upon their core design. But for performance, the system needs to be fastened properly. In automotive, most of the joints used fasteners which helps in serviceability of the components. There are more than thousands of fasteners used in the vehicle. At various locations, we found issue of bolt loosening and because of this design intent performance has not met by the system. During product development of ECS (Engine cooling system), various issues reported to loosening the bolt. The pre-mature failure of bolt loosening, increases the interest in young engineers for understanding the behavior of fastener in vehicle running conditions. This paper focuses on the design of wedge shape of washer to avoid bolt loosening.
Journal Article

Fault Diagnosis Approach for Roller Bearings Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet De-Noising and Auto-Correlation Enhancement

2019-05-02
Abstract This article presents a fault diagnosis approach for roller bearing by applying the autocorrelation approach to filtered vibration measured signal. An optimal Morlet wavelet filter is applied to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations; the raw measured signal is filtered with a band-pass filter based on a Morlet wavelet function whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature. The proposed technique is used to analyze the experimental measured signal of investigated vehicle gearbox. An artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.6 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft - on the clutch side.
Journal Article

Parasitic Battery Drain Problems and AUTOSAR Acceptance Testing

2018-04-18
Abstract Battery Drain problems can occur in the vehicle due to improper network management between electronic control units (ECUs). Aim of this paper is to identify the factors that cause transmission and cease of transmission of a network management message of an ECU along with its application messages that controls the sleep/wake-up performance of other ECUs in the network. Strategy used here is, based on the root cause analysis of problems found in Display unit in vehicle environment, the functional CAN signals impacting sleep/wake-up behavior is re-mapped along with the state flow transition of AUTOSAR NM Algorithm. A re-defined test case design and simulation for vehicle model is created. Especially it focuses on validating the impact of functional CAN signals on DUT’s sleep/wake-up performance.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Model for the Temperature Prediction of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

2018-08-14
Abstract Li-ion batteries have been widely applied in the areas of personal electronic devices, stationary energy storage system and electric vehicles due to their high energy/power density, low self-discharge rate and long cycle life etc. For the better designs of both the battery cells and their thermal management systems, various numerical approaches have been proposed to investigate the thermal performance of power batteries. Without the requirement of detailed physical and thermal parameters of batteries, this article proposed a data-driven model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the battery temperature with the inputs of ambient temperature, current and state of charge. Thermal response of a Li-ion battery module was experimentally evaluated under various conditions (i.e. ambient temperature of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C, and current rate of C/2, 1C and 2C) to acquire the necessary data sets for model development and validation.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on the Internal Resistance and Heat Generation Characteristics of Lithium Ion Power Battery with NCM/C Material System

2018-04-18
Abstract Heat generation characteristics of lithium ion batteries are vital for both the optimization of the battery cells and thermal management system design of battery packs. Compared with other factors, internal resistance has great influence on the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries. Focus on a 3 Ah pouch type battery cell with the NCM/C material system, this paper quantitatively evaluates the battery heat generation behavior using an Extended Volume-Accelerating Rate Calorimeter in combination with a battery cycler. Also, internal resistances of the battery cell are measured using both the hybrid pulse power characteristic (HPPC) and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Experimental results show that the overall internal resistance obtained by the EIS method is close to the ohmic resistance measured by the HPPC method. Heat generation power of the battery cell is small during discharge processes lower than 0.5 C-rate.
Journal Article

Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

2018-07-24
Abstract Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

2018-08-01
Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

2019-01-25
Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

2018-07-24
Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
Journal Article

Multi-Objective Optimization of Counterweights: A Substitute for the Balance Shaft or Mass Unbalancing in Three-Cylinder Engines

2018-10-18
Abstract Three-cylinder engines were launched, given the increasing demand for improved fuel economy and efficiency along with reduced friction and weight. Unlike four-cylinder engines, these engines are not naturally balanced. So, in order to compete with four-cylinder engines, some methods to solve this inherent weakness, such as balance shaft, mass unbalancing of flywheel and crankshaft pulley, or counterweights configuration (angular orientation and correction amount), have been used. Considering the undesirable characteristics of the balance shaft, such as cost, weight, friction, and noise, as well as dynamically inappropriate mass unbalancing method, this research proposes multi-objective optimization of counterweights to reduce vibrations.
Journal Article

Lightweight Carbon Composite Chassis for Engine Start Lithium Batteries

2018-03-07
Abstract The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules without and with Electrolyte under Quasi-Static and Dynamic In-Plane Compressive Loading Conditions

2019-07-02
Abstract Small rectangular representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules without and with electrolyte were tested under quasi-static and dynamic in-plane constrained compressive loading conditions. Effects of electrolyte and loading rate on the compressive behavior of RVE specimens were examined. The test results show that the average buckling stress of the specimens with electrolyte is higher than that of the specimens without electrolyte under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The test results also show that the average buckling stress of the specimens under dynamic loading conditions is higher than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions, without or with the presence of electrolyte in the specimens. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress of the specimens due to electrolyte under dynamic loading conditions is more than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions.
Journal Article

A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

2018-04-18
Abstract This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued.
Journal Article

Discussion on Charging Control Strategy for Power Battery at Low Temperatures

2017-10-08
Abstract In the case of electric vehicles, due to the charging current limitation of lithium battery at low temperatures (below -20°C), it has been proposed to heat the battery pack up to a suitable temperature range before charging through a liquid-heating plate with PTC. However, at a low state of charge (SOC), there is a question which one could take the place of battery pack to supply power for PTC when heating. So that off-board charger (OFC) has been considered to supply power for PTC in this paper. In order to control the current charging into the battery pack as less as possible at low temperatures, three control schemes of battery management system (BMS) are proposed and compared. Scheme 1: BMS controls the value of charging current request close to the working current of PTC. Scheme 2: BMS controls the value of charging voltage request to reach a state of relative balance. Scheme 3: BMS disconnects the pack from the charger and keeps the connection between PTC and charger.
Journal Article

Combined Battery Design Optimization and Energy Management of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

2018-10-31
Abstract This article investigates the fuel savings potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the lithium-ion battery pack in the hybrid configuration. The powertrain supervisory control optimization determines the most efficient way to split the power demand between the battery pack and the engine. Despite the available design and control optimization techniques, a generalized mathematical formulation and solution approach for combined design and control optimization is still missing in the literature. This article intends to fill that void by proposing a unified framework to simultaneously optimize both the battery pack size and power split control sequence. This is achieved through a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) where the design parameters are integrated into the Hamiltonian function.
Journal Article

Study of the Sliding Door Shaking Problem and Optimization Based on the Application of Euler’s Spiral

2018-10-03
Abstract This study focuses on the sudden shaking phenomenon of a sliding door passing through a corner. This phenomenon requires attention because shaking during movement can lead to a harsh operation feeling and a short service life. An experiment based on a test setup was conducted, and the sudden change in the acceleration of a sliding door panel was measured. Based on multi-body dynamics (MBD) analysis and a rigid-flexible coupled model of the sliding door system, the cause of the sudden shaking was determined to be the discontinuous curvature of the middle rail trajectory. A transition curve was proposed as the solution for the discontinuous curvature, and Euler’s spiral was applied in the redesign of the middle rail trajectory. Verified by simulations, the results exhibit considerable improvement in sliding door movement stability, with large reductions in the maximum center of mass (CM) acceleration and guide roller impact force.
Journal Article

Explanation for Variability in Lower Frequency Structure-Borne Noise and Vibration: Roles of Rear Subframe Dynamics and Right-Left Spindle Phasing

2018-05-17
Abstract This investigation focuses on a class of rear suspension systems that contain both direct and intersecting structural paths from the tire contact patches to the vehicle body. The structural paths intersect through a dynamically active rear subframe structure. New experiments and computational models are developed and analyzed in this article to investigate the variability of structure-borne noise and vibration due to tire/road interactions in the lower- to mid-frequency regimes. Controlled operational experiments are conducted with a mass-production minivan on a chassis dynamometer equipped with rough road shells. Unlike prior literature, the controlled experiments are analyzed for run-run variations in the structure-borne noise up to 300 Hz in a single vehicle to evaluate the nature of excitations at the spindle as the key source of variation in the absence of significant manufacturing, assembly and instrumentation errors.
Journal Article

Automotive Components Fatigue and Durability Testing with Flexible Vibration Testing Table

2018-04-07
Abstract Accelerated durability testing of automotive components has become a major interest for the ground vehicle Industries. This approach can predict the life characteristics of the vehicle by testing fatigue failure at higher stress level within a shorter period of time. Current tradition of laboratory testing includes a rigid fixture to mount the component with the shaker table. This approach is not accurate for the durability testing of most vehicle components especially for those parts connected directly with the tire and suspension system. In this work, the effects of the elastic support on modal parameters of the tested structure, such as natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, as well as the estimated structural fatigue life in the durability testing were studied through experimental testing and numerical simulations.
Journal Article

Active Suspension: Future Lessons from The Past

2018-06-18
Abstract Active suspension was a topic of great research interest near the end of last century. Ultimately broad bandwidth active systems were found to be too expensive in terms of both energy and financial cost. This past work, developing the ultimate vehicle suspension, has relevance for today’s vehicle designers working on more efficient and effective suspension systems for practical vehicles. From a control theorist’s perspective, it provides an interesting case study in the use of “practical” knowledge to allow “better” performance than predicted by theoretically optimal linear controllers. A brief history of active suspension will be introduced. Peter Wright, David Williams, and others at Lotus developed their Lotus modal control concept. In a parallel effort, Dean Karnopp presented the notion of inertial (Skyhook) damping. These concepts will be compared, the combination of these two distinctly different efforts will be discussed, and eventual vehicle results presented.
Journal Article

Feature-Based Response Classification in Nonlinear Structural Design Simulations

2018-07-24
Abstract An applied system design analysis approach for automated processing and classification of simulated structural responses is presented. Deterministic and nonlinear dynamics are studied under ideal loading and low noise conditions to determine fundamental system properties, how they vary and possibly interact. Using powerful computer resources, large amounts of simulated raw data can be produced in a short period of time. Efficient tools for data processing and interpretation are then needed, but existing ones often require much manual preparation and direct human judgement. Thus, there is a need to develop techniques that help to treat more virtual prototype variants and efficiently extract useful information from them. For this, time signals are evaluated by methods commonly used within structural dynamics and statistical learning. A multi-level multi-frequency stimulus function is constructed and simulated response signals are combined into frequency domain functions.
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