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Journal Article

Exhaust Manifold Thermal Assessment with Ambient Heat Transfer Coefficient Optimization

2018-06-04
Abstract Exhaust manifolds are one of the most important components on the engine assembly, which is mounted on engine cylinder head. Exhaust manifolds connect exhaust ports of cylinders to the turbine for turbocharged diesel engine therefore they play a significant role in the performance of engine system. Exhaust manifolds are subjected to very harsh thermal loads; extreme heating under very high temperatures and cooling under low temperatures. Therefore designing a durable exhaust manifold is a challenging task. Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an effective tool to drive an exhaust manifold design at the early stage of engine development. Thus advanced CAE methodologies are required for the accurate prediction of temperature distribution. However, at the end of the development process, for the design verification purposes, various tests have to be carried out in engine dynamometer cells under severe operating conditions.
Journal Article

Parasitic Battery Drain Problems and AUTOSAR Acceptance Testing

2018-04-18
Abstract Battery Drain problems can occur in the vehicle due to improper network management between electronic control units (ECUs). Aim of this paper is to identify the factors that cause transmission and cease of transmission of a network management message of an ECU along with its application messages that controls the sleep/wake-up performance of other ECUs in the network. Strategy used here is, based on the root cause analysis of problems found in Display unit in vehicle environment, the functional CAN signals impacting sleep/wake-up behavior is re-mapped along with the state flow transition of AUTOSAR NM Algorithm. A re-defined test case design and simulation for vehicle model is created. Especially it focuses on validating the impact of functional CAN signals on DUT’s sleep/wake-up performance.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Model for the Temperature Prediction of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

2018-08-14
Abstract Li-ion batteries have been widely applied in the areas of personal electronic devices, stationary energy storage system and electric vehicles due to their high energy/power density, low self-discharge rate and long cycle life etc. For the better designs of both the battery cells and their thermal management systems, various numerical approaches have been proposed to investigate the thermal performance of power batteries. Without the requirement of detailed physical and thermal parameters of batteries, this article proposed a data-driven model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the battery temperature with the inputs of ambient temperature, current and state of charge. Thermal response of a Li-ion battery module was experimentally evaluated under various conditions (i.e. ambient temperature of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C, and current rate of C/2, 1C and 2C) to acquire the necessary data sets for model development and validation.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on the Internal Resistance and Heat Generation Characteristics of Lithium Ion Power Battery with NCM/C Material System

2018-04-18
Abstract Heat generation characteristics of lithium ion batteries are vital for both the optimization of the battery cells and thermal management system design of battery packs. Compared with other factors, internal resistance has great influence on the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries. Focus on a 3 Ah pouch type battery cell with the NCM/C material system, this paper quantitatively evaluates the battery heat generation behavior using an Extended Volume-Accelerating Rate Calorimeter in combination with a battery cycler. Also, internal resistances of the battery cell are measured using both the hybrid pulse power characteristic (HPPC) and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Experimental results show that the overall internal resistance obtained by the EIS method is close to the ohmic resistance measured by the HPPC method. Heat generation power of the battery cell is small during discharge processes lower than 0.5 C-rate.
Journal Article

Sliding Mode Control of Hydraulic Excavator for Automated Grading Operation

2018-06-07
Abstract Although ground grading is one of the most common tasks that hydraulic excavators perform in typical work sites, proper grading is not easy for less-skilled operators as it requires coordinated manipulation of multiple hydraulic cylinders. In order to help alleviate this difficulty, automated grading systems are considered as an effective alternative to manual operations of hydraulic excavators. In this article, a sliding mode controller design is presented for automated grading control of a hydraulic excavator. First, an excavator manipulator model is developed in Simulink by using SimMechanics and SimHydraulics toolboxes. Then, a sliding mode controller is designed to control the manipulator to trace a predefined trajectory for a grading task. For a comparison study, a PI controller is used to control the manipulator to perform a grading task following the same desired trajectory and the performance is compared with those obtained by the sliding mode controller.
Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

2018-07-05
Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

2018-08-01
Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

2019-01-25
Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder Volume Trace Deviation

2018-04-18
Abstract Heat release analysis is a widely used cylinder pressure-based method for evaluating combustion in engine development, and it is also being investigated as a means to control engine combustion. Heat release analysis has been shown to be sensitive to errors in the calculated cylinder volume, but despite this one of the most common assumptions is that the cylinder volume is nominal and can be calculated solely by the geometrical relations among the measures of the engine components. During engine operation, the components surrounding the combustion chamber are exposed to thermal forces, pressure forces, and mass forces from the reciprocating components. Due to these forces, the components will deform and the volume of the combustion chamber will deviate from its ideal volume. The volume will also be affected by the production tolerances of the engine.
Journal Article

Co-Simulation Study of the Split-Crankshaft Engine’s Electromechanical Clutch Unit

2018-03-23
Abstract The main objective of active downsizing is to increase the power train efficiency. In order to consistently enhance an approach of active downsizing, it is inevitable to disable and additionally to disengage part of the overall engine displacement volume. The disengagement avoids the friction loss of the piston group as well as its crank- and valve-train section. Therefore, this beneficial approach, the Split-Crankshaft Engine (SCE) is currently under development at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines in cooperation with the Gear Research Centre (FZG), at the Technical University of Munich. The SCE concept consists of two partial internal combustion engines, which are arranged inline. The Primary Engine (PE) is permanently running while the Secondary Engine (SE) can be switched on and off load-dependently during driving operation.
Journal Article

Partial Transparency of Advanced Compression Ignition Combustion Chamber Deposits, Its Impact on Combustion Chamber Wall Temperatures and Application to Thermal Barrier Coating Design

2018-04-18
Abstract The proven impact of combustion chamber deposits, CCD, on advanced compression ignition, ACI, combustion strategies has spurred researchers to develop thermal barrier coatings, TBC, which can mimic CCD benefits on combustion efficiency and operational range expansion. However, application of TBCs within multi-mode engines exposes them to non-negligible soot radiation. In the present paper, the impact of radiation heat transfer on combustion chamber deposits is studied. The morphological construction of the combustion chamber deposit layer is shown to be partially transparent to radiation heat transfer, drawing corollaries with ceramic-based TBCs. Additional experimentation eliminates the optical transparency of CCD to reveal an “effective radiation penetration depth” facilitated by open surface porosity. The effective radiation penetration depth is then utilized to establish the relative communicating porosity of CCD and a magnesium zirconate TBC.
Journal Article

Influence of Miller Cycles on Engine Air Flow

2018-04-18
Abstract The influence of the intake valve lift of two Miller cycles on the in-cylinder flow field inside a DISI engine is studied experimentally since changes of the engine flow field directly affect the turbulent mixing and the combustion process. For the analysis of the impact of the valve timing on the general flow field topology and on the large-scale flow structures, high-speed stereo-scopic particle-image velocimetry measurements are conducted in the tumble plane and the cross-tumble plane. The direct comparison to a standard Otto intake valve lift curve reveals evidently different impacts on the flow field for both Miller cam shafts. A Miller cycle that features late intake valve closing shows a flow field comparable to the standard Otto valve timing and a tumble vortex of strong intensity can be identified.
Journal Article

Joint Mechanism and Prediction of Strength for a Radial Knurling Connection of Assembled Camshaft Using a Subsequent Modeling Approach

2018-06-25
Abstract Knurling joint applied in assembled camshaft has developed rapidly in recent years, which have exhibited great advantages against conventional joint methods in the aspects of automation, joint precision, thermal damage, noise, and near net shape forming. Both quality of assembly process and joint strength are the key requirements for manufacturing a reliable assembled camshaft. In this article, a finite element predictive approach including three subsequent models (knurling, press-fit and torsion strength) has been established. Johnson-Cook material model has been used to simulate the severe plastic deformation of the material. The residual stress field calculated from the knurling process was transferred as initial condition to the press-fit model to predict the press-fit load. The predicted press-fit load, torque strength and displacement of cam profile before failure were calculated.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

2018-07-24
Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
Journal Article

Development of an Overhead Camshaft System Adapted to an SAE Supermileage Single-Person Vehicle in a Fuel Economy Perspective

2018-06-18
Abstract This article presents a comparative study between two camshafts systems adapted to the single cylinder engine of a Supermileage vehicle in a fuel economy perspective. One system is from a Honda AF70E engine and the other is a new design. The new camshaft system was improved for fuel economy by developing a new camshaft that enhances volumetric efficiency while reducing friction losses. The comparison was made by measuring the efficiency of the engine in the speed range where the engine was used by the Supermileage vehicle and a calculation was made to show which of the configuration is best for the vehicle.
Journal Article

WM-LES-Simulation of a Generic Intake Port Geometry

2018-06-18
Abstract Fluid mechanical design of the cylinder charge motion is an important part of an engine development. In the present contribution an intake port geometry is proposed that can be used as a test case for intake port flow simulations. The objective is to fill the gap between generic test cases, such as the backward facing step or the sudden expansion, and simulations of proprietary intake ports, which are barely accessible in the community. For the intake geometry measurement data was generated on a flow-through test bench and a wall-modeled LES-simulation using a hybrid RANS/LES approach for near-wall regions was conducted. The objective is to generate and analyze a reference flow case. Since mesh convergence studies are too costly for scale resolving approaches only one simulation was done, but on a very fine and mostly block-structured numerical mesh to achieve minimal numerical dissipation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Regulated Pollutant Emissions and Aftertreatment Efficiency in a GTDi Engine Using Different SOI Strategies

2018-06-25
Abstract In order to improve performance and minimize pollutant emissions in gasoline turbocharged direct-injection (GTDi) engines, different injection strategies and technologies are being investigated. The inclusion of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and the variation of the start of injection (SOI) are some of these strategies that can influence the air-to-fuel (AF) mixture formation and consequently in the combustion process and pollutant emissions. This paper presents a complete study of the engine performance, pollutant emissions and aftertreatment efficiency that produces the SOI variation with a fixed EGR rate in a 4-cylinder, turbocharged, gasoline direct-injection engine with 2.0 L displacement. The equipment used in this study are TSI-EEPS for particle measurement and HORIBA MEXA 1230-PM for soot measurement being HORIBA MEXA 7100-DEGR with a heated line selector the system employed for regulated gaseous emission measurement and aftertreatment evaluation.
Journal Article

Limitations of Two-Stage Turbocharging at High Flight Altitudes

2018-09-17
Abstract High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used for high flight altitudes, which enable low drag and fast flight with minimal fuel consumption. Two-stage turbocharging is necessary to sustain sea-level power at high flight altitudes. In this study, the limitations of two-stage turbocharging at high flight altitudes typical for HALE UAVs are analyzed for the first time. The obtained results show that the minimum available engine power increases as the altitude rises. This will limit the ability of the aircraft to descend rapidly. Furthermore, at high altitudes, if a lower operating point is required for a fast descent, further recovery to full power for climbing or cruising could be unavailable. In the latter cases, a lower altitude must be reached before full power would be available again. A basic algorithm for the assessment and analysis of the limitations of UAV engines with two-stage turbochargers operating at high altitudes is suggested.
Journal Article

Fracture-Splitting Processing Performance Study and Comparison of the C70S6 and 36MnVS4 Connecting Rods

2018-08-08
Abstract 36MnVS4 is a new connecting-rod fracture-splitting material. To explore why it has a high fracture- splitting defective index, this article simulated the fracture-splitting process of connecting rods. Comparing 36MnVS4 with C70S6, this article analyzed the stress-strain state of the groove roots, the position of crack initiation, the plastic deformation distribution of the fracture surface, and the splitting force changes in fracture splitting process. Results show that the crack initiation position of the 36MnVS4 connecting rod is relatively more scattered and random, and the crack starting point of the C70S6 connecting rod is more unique. Compared with the C70S6 connecting rod, the 36MnVS4 connecting rod has an earlier crack initiation time and smaller fracture-splitting force. Therefore, the 36MnVS4 has higher gap sensitivity and its fracture surface is more prone to tear.
Journal Article

Conditioning Turbocharger Compressor Map Data for Use in Engine Performance Simulation

2018-08-08
Abstract Turbocharger compressor maps are used in engine performance modeling and simulation to predict engine air system operating conditions. Errors in compressor map data can result in inaccurate engine performance prediction. A method is described for conditioning compressor map data for use in engine performance simulation, by detecting and replacing suspect data points, and interpolating and extrapolating the map data. The method first characterizes enthalpy rise through the compressor, after removing data points likely influenced by heat transfer from turbine to compressor, using energy transfer coefficient vs. impeller outlet flow coefficient. This is done concurrently with estimating impeller outlet conditions using simplified geometry assumptions and a modified definition for compressor stage reaction.
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