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Journal Article

Fault Diagnosis Approach for Roller Bearings Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet De-Noising and Auto-Correlation Enhancement

2019-05-02
Abstract This article presents a fault diagnosis approach for roller bearing by applying the autocorrelation approach to filtered vibration measured signal. An optimal Morlet wavelet filter is applied to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations; the raw measured signal is filtered with a band-pass filter based on a Morlet wavelet function whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature. The proposed technique is used to analyze the experimental measured signal of investigated vehicle gearbox. An artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.6 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft - on the clutch side.
Journal Article

Parasitic Battery Drain Problems and AUTOSAR Acceptance Testing

2018-04-18
Abstract Battery Drain problems can occur in the vehicle due to improper network management between electronic control units (ECUs). Aim of this paper is to identify the factors that cause transmission and cease of transmission of a network management message of an ECU along with its application messages that controls the sleep/wake-up performance of other ECUs in the network. Strategy used here is, based on the root cause analysis of problems found in Display unit in vehicle environment, the functional CAN signals impacting sleep/wake-up behavior is re-mapped along with the state flow transition of AUTOSAR NM Algorithm. A re-defined test case design and simulation for vehicle model is created. Especially it focuses on validating the impact of functional CAN signals on DUT’s sleep/wake-up performance.
Journal Article

Automated ASIL Allocation and Decomposition according to ISO 26262, Using the Example of Vehicle Electrical Systems for Automated Driving

2018-04-18
Abstract ISO 26262 needs to be considered when developing safety-relevant E/E systems within the automotive industry. One part of the development process according to ISO 26262 is the derivation of the safety requirements for component functions. Here, one attribute of the safety requirements is the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). The ASIL at a component level can be determined using ASIL allocation and decomposition. Considering complex systems such as vehicle electrical systems, countless possibilities can be identified for how the ASILs at a component level can be assigned in line with safety goals. In terms of efficiency, manual assignment is not expedient. Therefore, an algorithm for automated assignment of the ASILs will be introduced which considers constraints based on a fault tree analysis. The function of the approach will be demonstrated using the example of a vehicle electrical system from an automated vehicle.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on the Internal Resistance and Heat Generation Characteristics of Lithium Ion Power Battery with NCM/C Material System

2018-04-18
Abstract Heat generation characteristics of lithium ion batteries are vital for both the optimization of the battery cells and thermal management system design of battery packs. Compared with other factors, internal resistance has great influence on the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries. Focus on a 3 Ah pouch type battery cell with the NCM/C material system, this paper quantitatively evaluates the battery heat generation behavior using an Extended Volume-Accelerating Rate Calorimeter in combination with a battery cycler. Also, internal resistances of the battery cell are measured using both the hybrid pulse power characteristic (HPPC) and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Experimental results show that the overall internal resistance obtained by the EIS method is close to the ohmic resistance measured by the HPPC method. Heat generation power of the battery cell is small during discharge processes lower than 0.5 C-rate.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

2018-08-01
Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

2019-01-25
Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

The Impacts of Pd in BEA Zeolite on Decreasing Cold-Start NMOG Emission of an E85 Fuel Vehicle

2018-10-25
Abstract In the development of hydrocarbon (HC) traps for E85 fuel vehicle emission control, the addition of palladium (Pd) to BEA zeolite was studied for trapping and decreasing cold-start ethanol emissions. BEA zeolite after a laboratory aging at 750°C for 25 hours released nearly all of the trapped ethanol as unconverted ethanol at low temperature, and some ethene was released at a higher temperature by a dehydration reaction. The addition of Pd to BEA zeolite showed a decrease in the release of unconverted ethanol emissions even after the lab aging. The release of methane (CH4), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and CO2 from Pd-BEA zeolite during desorption (temperature programmed desorption (TPD)) demonstrated that multiple ethanol reaction mechanisms were involved including dehydrogenation and decomposition reactions.
Journal Article

Lightweight Carbon Composite Chassis for Engine Start Lithium Batteries

2018-03-07
Abstract The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules without and with Electrolyte under Quasi-Static and Dynamic In-Plane Compressive Loading Conditions

2019-07-02
Abstract Small rectangular representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules without and with electrolyte were tested under quasi-static and dynamic in-plane constrained compressive loading conditions. Effects of electrolyte and loading rate on the compressive behavior of RVE specimens were examined. The test results show that the average buckling stress of the specimens with electrolyte is higher than that of the specimens without electrolyte under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The test results also show that the average buckling stress of the specimens under dynamic loading conditions is higher than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions, without or with the presence of electrolyte in the specimens. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress of the specimens due to electrolyte under dynamic loading conditions is more than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions.
Journal Article

Discussion on Charging Control Strategy for Power Battery at Low Temperatures

2017-10-08
Abstract In the case of electric vehicles, due to the charging current limitation of lithium battery at low temperatures (below -20°C), it has been proposed to heat the battery pack up to a suitable temperature range before charging through a liquid-heating plate with PTC. However, at a low state of charge (SOC), there is a question which one could take the place of battery pack to supply power for PTC when heating. So that off-board charger (OFC) has been considered to supply power for PTC in this paper. In order to control the current charging into the battery pack as less as possible at low temperatures, three control schemes of battery management system (BMS) are proposed and compared. Scheme 1: BMS controls the value of charging current request close to the working current of PTC. Scheme 2: BMS controls the value of charging voltage request to reach a state of relative balance. Scheme 3: BMS disconnects the pack from the charger and keeps the connection between PTC and charger.
Journal Article

Development of a Catalytic Converter Cool-Down Model to Investigate Intermittent Engine Operation in HEVs

2018-10-29
Abstract Catalytic converters, a primary component in most automotive emissions control systems, do not function well until they are heated substantially above ambient temperature. As the primary energy for catalyst heating comes from engine exhaust gases, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that have the potential for short and infrequent use of their onboard engine may have limited energy available for catalytic converter heating. This article presents a comparison of multiple hybrid supervisory control strategies to determine the ability to avoid engine cold starts during a blended charge-depleting propulsion mode. Full vehicle and catalytic converter simulations are performed in parallel with engine dynamometer testing in order to examine catalyst temperature variations during the course of the US06 City drive cycle. Emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) calculations are also performed to determine the effective number of engine starts during the drive cycle.
Journal Article

Combined Battery Design Optimization and Energy Management of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

2018-10-31
Abstract This article investigates the fuel savings potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the lithium-ion battery pack in the hybrid configuration. The powertrain supervisory control optimization determines the most efficient way to split the power demand between the battery pack and the engine. Despite the available design and control optimization techniques, a generalized mathematical formulation and solution approach for combined design and control optimization is still missing in the literature. This article intends to fill that void by proposing a unified framework to simultaneously optimize both the battery pack size and power split control sequence. This is achieved through a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) where the design parameters are integrated into the Hamiltonian function.
Journal Article

System Performance Comparison of Direct Torque Control Strategies Based on Flux Linkage and DC-Link Voltage for EV Drivetrains

2019-11-14
Abstract Numerous works have been carried out with perspectives to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV) drivetrains; much of the attention has been on the design of highly efficient electric motors, power converters, and energy storage system. Besides the abovementioned factors, selection of the drivetrain configuration and control strategy also influence the efficiency and performance of EV drivetrain. The drivetrain efficiency and performance indices, such as torque ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current, are sensitive to the direct current (dc)-link voltage and flux linkage values for a drivetrain control strategy. Therefore, in this work, the efficiency and the performance of two popular direct torque controlled induction motor (IM) drives are compared on the basis of adjustable dc-link voltage and flux linkage values for desired operating condition. Both these techniques are implemented on a lab scale test bed.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

2019-12-02
Abstract This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Data Reduction Algorithm for Automotive Multiplexing

2019-04-08
Abstract Present-day vehicles come with a variety of new features like the pre-crash warning, the vehicle-to-vehicle communication, semi-autonomous driving systems, telematics, drive by wire. They demand very high bandwidth from in-vehicle networks. Various ECUs present inside the automotive transmits useful information via automotive multiplexing. Transmission of data in real-time achieves optimum functionality. The high bandwidth and high-speed requirement can be achieved either by using multiple buses or by implementing higher bandwidth. But, by doing so, the cost of the network as well as the complexity of the wiring increases. Another option is to implement higher layer protocol which can reduce the amount of data transferred by using data reduction (DR) techniques, thus reducing the bandwidth usage. The implementation cost is minimal as the changes are required in the software only and not in hardware.
Journal Article

Uncertainty Analysis of High-Frequency Noise in Battery Electric Vehicle Based on Interval Model

2019-02-01
Abstract The high-frequency noise issue is one of the most significant noise, vibration, and harshness problems, particularly in battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The sound package treatment is one of the most important approaches toward solving this problem. Owing to the limitations imposed by manufacturing error, assembly error, and the operating conditions, there is often a big difference between the actual values and the design values of the sound package components. Therefore, the sound package parameters include greater uncertainties. In this article, an uncertainty analysis method for BEV interior noise was developed based on an interval model to investigate the effect of sound package uncertainty on the interior noise of a BEV. An interval perturbation method was formulated to compute the uncertainty of the BEV’s interior noise.
Journal Article

Artificial Lightning Tests on Metal and CFRP Automotive Bodies: A Comparative Study

2019-01-07
Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used in automobiles as well as airplanes. Because of its light weight and high strength, CFRP is a good choice for making vehicle bodies lighter, which would improve fuel economy. Conventional metal bodies provide a convenient body return for electric wiring and offer good shielding against electromagnetic fields. Although CFRP is a conductor, its conductivity is much lower than that of metals. Therefore, CFRP bodies are usually not useful for electric wiring. In thunderstorms, an automotive body is considered to be a Faraday cage that protects the vehicle’s occupants from the potential harms of lightning. Before CFRP becomes widely applied to automotive bodies, its electric and electromagnetic properties need to be investigated in order to determine whether it also works as a Faraday cage against lightning. In this article, CFRP and metal body vehicles were tested under artificial lightning.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Model for the Temperature Prediction of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

2018-08-14
Abstract Li-ion batteries have been widely applied in the areas of personal electronic devices, stationary energy storage system and electric vehicles due to their high energy/power density, low self-discharge rate and long cycle life etc. For the better designs of both the battery cells and their thermal management systems, various numerical approaches have been proposed to investigate the thermal performance of power batteries. Without the requirement of detailed physical and thermal parameters of batteries, this article proposed a data-driven model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the battery temperature with the inputs of ambient temperature, current and state of charge. Thermal response of a Li-ion battery module was experimentally evaluated under various conditions (i.e. ambient temperature of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C, and current rate of C/2, 1C and 2C) to acquire the necessary data sets for model development and validation.
Journal Article

Resolution of HEV Battery Cooling System Inlet Noise Issue by Optimizing Duct Design and Fan Speed Control Strategy

2018-04-07
Abstract The power battery cooling system of a hybrid electric vehicle is composed of a fan and duct assembly with its inlet positioned inside the vehicle cabin. For the prototype vehicle considered in this work, the air inlet is positioned on the package tray due to limited feasible choices. When the battery temperature is over rated limit, the cooling fan starts to operate to cool the battery system. Propelled by the fan in the cooling system, the air in the passenger compartment enters the duct inlet, and rushes through the air duct to reach the battery pack to fulfill the intended cooling function. In this case, the rear seat occupants could clearly perceive the existence of an annoying whirring noise. In this paper, the characteristics of the battery air cooling system and its working principles are briefly described. The air inlet noise generation mechanism and its frequency characteristics are then analyzed.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

2018-07-24
Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
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